Environmental microbiology is the study of composition and physiology of microbial communities in the environment. In 1676, Anton van Leeuwenhoek observed the bacteria and another microorganism by using a single lens microscope which was made by himself. Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch were considered to be the father of microbiology and medical microbiology respectively. The study of science that deals with the study of microorganism is called microbiology.
Bacteria consist of an incipient nucleus which is not bounded by the nuclear membrane. Here, the hereditary material is DNA, which is scattered in the cytoplasmic mass, which means that the rest of the other material are also not bounded by the membrane, bacteria are the prokaryotic organism so their nucleus is not of primitive type.
Archaea are the single cell organism that lacks the nuclei. The difference between the bacteria and archaea are not well known. They are not well recognized so that the Archaea is classified with bacteria as a part of the kingdom Monera. The microbiologist Carl Woese in 1990 proposed the three domain system that divided the living things into bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes.
A virus is a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cell of an organism. Viruses can infect all kinds of organism, from animals and plants to bacteria and archaea. Viruses cause a number of disease in Eukaryotes. In human, smallpox, herpes, polio, rabies, Ebola, Santa fever, and AIDS are the example of viral diseases.
There are many factors that have an influence on the growth of the microorganism. Theoretically, microbes grow at all temperature between the freezing point of water and the temperature at which protein or protoplast coagulates somewhere between the maximum and minimum point lies the optimum temperature at which the microbe grows best.Bacteria can't grow without water.
Waste water treatment: Today's modern society need the treatment of waste water. The first modern treatment of the waste water by sewerage system was built by Lindley in 1842. He was born in Hamburg of Germany. He had mentioned ‘’how waste water is collected and transported to the treatment area’’ in his publication. Still, till now his many principles are used in the wastewater treatment process. The process of advanced wastewater treatment makes the water potable to drink or suitable to drink. To meet the rules of discharge, wastewater is cleared up by applying the process of primary, secondary and tertiary or advanced level of treatment. Mainly in our society, there are two types of waste water in a large quantity.
There are many physical parameters of the water to test their quality. Turbidity means waste present in water as in the form of suspended solids, clay, silt, sand etc. Pure water does not have any colour. Pure water should be colourless but it is colorful due to the presence of different kinds of impurities. If the taste and odour are present in the water then it is considered as undrinkable water.
Microorganism plays a vital role in waste water treatment during secondary treatment also which is also called the biological treatment, the oxygen demanding wastes with are organic wastes of water pollution are removed with the help of microorganism. The main purpose of secondary treatment is to provide additional biological oxygen demand (BOD) and suspended solid particles.