Ecosystem Dynamics

Notes

Ecosystem and Concept of Ecosystem

An ecosystem is a community of different species interacting with one another and with their non-living environment of matter and energy. Ecology focused on a right-hand portion of the spectrum .i.e levels of organizations from organ system to ecosystem. The productivity of an ecosystem or community is defined as the state at which radiant energy is stored by photosynthetic organisms in the form of organic substances.

Terrestrial Ecosystem and Aquatic Ecosystem

The distribution of biome appears to the governed by annual variation of temperature i.e maximum and minimum temperature, mineral availability, rainfall both normal and tiniest and availability of sunlight. For instance, forest are generally associated with heavy rainfall but the type is prejudiced by temperature and light; the equivalent is true for deserts, which occur in regions where rainfall is very low.

Similarities and Differences of Terrestrial and Aquatic System

Energy is the capacity of doing work. Biological activities require energy which comes from the sun. The solar energy is transformed into chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis. In both terrestrial and aquatic environments, the ecosystems include communities made up of a variety of species.

Ecological Efficiency, Concept of Productivity and Bio-geo chemical cycle

The energy component of energy environment thermal radiation comes from any surface or object i.e. at a temperature above absolute zero. This includes not only soil, water and vegetation but also clouds, which contribute a substantial amount of heat of energy radiated downward into ecosystem. In this way in ecosystem energetics we study about the Quantity of solar energy reaching an ecosystem. Quantity of solar energy used by green plants for photosynthesis. And Quantity of path of energy flow from producer to consumers. Productivity of an ecosystem or community is defined as the state at which radiant energy is stored by photosynthetic organisms in the form of organic substances.

Primary and Secondary Productivity, Biogeochemical Cycle and Nitrogen Cycle

To measure secondary productivity, a biomass method is commonly used. This method is used for invertebrate animals. Biogeochemical cycle is the circulation of essential elements of protoplasm from a non-living environment to living organisms. The movement of a mineral is accomplished by the operation of the different chemical cycle that keeps on passing the minerals back and forth between organisms and their environment.

Carbon Cycle, Sulphur Cycle and phosphorus Cycle

Carbon is a basic unit of all organic compounds. The main source of nearly all carbon found in the living organisms in atmospheric CO2and is also found in dissolved state in the water on the earth. Animals and plants obtain phosphorus which occurs in the soil as different forms and phosphate. Phosphorus is a component of nucleic acid, ATP, ADP, NADP, etc.