Environment mainly consists of atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. But it can be roughly divided into two types such as (a) Microenvironment and (b) Macro environment. It can also be divided into two other types such as (c) Physical and (d) biotic environment.
The environment consists of four segments i.e. atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Environmental science deals with many areas of conservation of the natural resources, ecological aspects, pollution of the surrounding of natural resources, controlling the pollution, social issues connected to it, impacts of human population on the environment
Ecology is defined as the science of interactions among individuals, populations and communities and it involves the interrelationship between the living components (biotic) with their non-living components (abiotic components) and their environment. The term ecosystem was first proposed by British Ecologist A.G Tansley in 1935. He defined it as a resultant from the interaction of all living and non-living factors of the environment.
Autotrophic organisms are those which produce their food themselves by absorbing sunlight, water etc. & the feeding mechanism of this organism is called autotrophic nutrition. In this, minerals are directly obtained from nature. Heterotrophic nutrition is the nutrition which is obtained from producer & other.
There are six types of ecology. They are population, organismal, community, landscape, global & ecosystem. Every organism in an ecosystem can be assigned a feeding level called Trophic level. For example; all producers belong to 1st trophic level because all producers utilize the similar energy during the process of photosynthesis.
The energy flows from the sun to plants & then to all heterotrophic organisms such as microorganisms, animals & human beings. Living organisms use energy mainly into 2 forms; Radial and Fixed energy. All the earth ecosystem together make up the biosphere. Major land ecosystem such as forests, grassland and desert are called terrestrial ecosystem or biomes; major ecosystem found in hydrosphere called an aquatic ecosystem.
Macro-consumer is the consumer which in an order as they occur in a food chain are herbivores, carnivores. They are prototroph’s which includes chief animals that ingest organic matter. Micro-consumers are popularly known as decomposers. They are saprotrophs and include chiefly bacteria actinomycetes and fungi.
The biotic component of forest ecosystems is a producer, consumers, and decomposer. These are the inorganic as well as organic substances present in the soil and atmosphere. In addition to the minerals present in the forest, we find the dead organic debris the litter accumulation, chiefly in a temperate climate.