Demography, Population Change and its Management
Demography is the scientific study of human population. The population is the total number children, youth, adult and old people residing in a particular place at a particular time. Census is the main source of demographic data. The census is carried out by using two methods, Defacto and Dejure. This note provides information about demography and census.
The sense , recording of birth and death is vital registration. In this system, the various events like birth ,death , marriage , divorce and migration are been recorded .The vital registration system was started in E England in the 16th century for the first time . It is the important sources of demographic data .It is also known as the civil registration system . The statistical recording of vital events which includes : birth , death , divorce , migration , marriage , adoption , etc. Which is useful for population data .Sample survey is also another important source of population data. It is the process of collecting , compiling , evaluating and publishing demographic , social and economic data about the sampled population .The another one is ' a mechanism which will provide for the continuous recording of information about the population in such a manner that data on particular events related to each as well as selected characteristics describing him are maintain on a current basis ."It is an important date keeping because it keep the record from birth to the death of the people .
Birth, also known as parturition, is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth new ones . It is an important component mainly related to fertility . It is the process of producing offspring . There are different factors which affect the birth like : social factors , economic factors,environmental factors etc .
There are various factors affecting population change.In this lesson, we discuss the population change caused by death and migration. Death is a natural process whereas migration is an unnatural process. This note provides information about the factors affecting population change: Death and Migration.
Marriage is traditional to make the relationship between male and female in husband and wife since for a long period . It is a social culture process making understanding between two opposite sex to run their life . According to UN " Marriage is a legal union of the person of opposite sex, the legality of which may be established by civil religious or another means recognized by the law of each country ". There are different types of married like arrange marriage , love marriage and court marriage etc.Migration is affected by various factors like age , sex, education , occupation , employment etc. In our country, Nepal migration rate is very high from the rural area to urban areas . In Nepal , due to the lack of proper development planning and unbalanced regional development people, they move from one place to another . The people living in Mountain and Hilly regions are becoming less , due to the large migration of the people to the Terai region .