The period before Prithvi Narayan Shah (880 – 1769 A.D) is regarded as the Medieval period of Nepal. This historical period of Nepal had various social features. Inheritance of dynasty, origin of surname, Dolaji system, widow and re-marriage, rituals and festivals, language and literature and evil customs etc were some of the features of the medieval period.
In the Medieval period, all the valleys and the districts had a single political unit. The Royal lineages and the noble families had struggles among them for the throne. Mithila and Tirhut were the main influencing states from the south which was under the domination of warriors allied to the Chalukya Dynasty from Karnataka in southern India. The Medieval period also provides the information about state formation, condition of the kingdom, conflict and discord and administration.
In the ancient times during the Malla period, people were economically strong and had the feeling of nationality. They were patriotic to their nation and its responsibilities. At that time, the main occupation was agriculture and animal rearing. They were famous for art and architecture.
The art of Nepal, with a few exceptions, is based on the religious themes taken from Buddhism and Hinduism. Art and architecture in the Medieval period were advanced and much developed than Lichchhavi period. Nepalese art is full of the knowledge of religions, nature, and idiosyncrasies. The Malla reign speaks the high skill of Nepalese artists. It gives the information about its history, religions and culture.
The Hwang-Ho Civilization is one of the important civilizations of the world. It was developed about 3600 to 1600 years ago in Hwang-Ho river valley in China. It is the famous river of China known as Yellow river. The valley was made up of plain fertile soil and held enough moisture for growing crops and for human settlement. Finding it suitable for farming, Chinese settled there and founded Hwang-Ho Valley civilization. It also provides the information about the social condition and economic condition at that period.
Mesopotamia means “between two rivers” in the Greek language. Mesopotamian civilization was the first great civilization originated in the heart of the Arabian Peninsula. It lies between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers, in the land called ‘Al-Jazirah’ (the Island). In the present time, it lies in the middle east of Iraq. It also provides the information of canal and dams, the first cities, cradle of civilization, Mesopotamian art, foreign invaders and the population of the Babylonia.