Concept of Scientific Management, Taylor's scientific managements. Fayol's administrative management theory. Max Weber's bureaucracy theory.
Scientific management is principle-based management where scientific ideas and principles are used to do the complex job of management. It is based on the cause and effect theory. Taylor's scientific management deals with maximum output due to the high level of effort by labor and minimum use of resources. But it focuses on only workers and takes workers as economic tools.
Henry Fayol provided 14 principles of general management to guide the managers who in his time didn’t use the scientific approach of management. His theory is based on how the management should interact with the employees. The elements of management are planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling. He identified six major activities which are technical, commercial, financial, accounting, managerial and security activities.
Max Weber is a German sociologist, who was a pioneer in the field of Bureaucracy Theory of Management. The principles of Bureaucracy theory are formal hierarchy structure, formal rules and norms, specialization, equality, recruitment based on abilities and qualification, an “up-focused” or “in-focused” mission and systematic filling. Some of its criticisms are: discourages creative and innovative ideas, formal recording wastes money and effort, misuse of power, rigidity and inflexible in its ways, delay in the decision-making process and one-way Communication.