Upon completion of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Describe sexual and asexual reproduction in animals with examples.
  • Describe sexual and asexual reproduction in  plants with examples.


Mushroom Morphology

Ferns are Cryptograms under Pteridophyta division which absorb water and mineral from the soil. The life cycle of fern plant completes in two phases which are sporophyte(Asexual) and gametophyte(sexual).This note explains basic morphology of mushroom.

Asexual Reproduction

The type of reproduction in which fusion of male and female gamete is not needed but takes place from same vegetative part of the body is called asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction is divided into fission, budding and fragmentation and regeneration. This note has information on different types of asexual reproduction and their advantages and disadvantages.

Sexual Reproduction in Animals

Sexual reproduction in animals is the integrated processes of meiosis, mitosis, and fertilization. Gamete is formed after meiosis in male and female reproductive cells. This note explains how sexual reproduction occurs in animals.

Sexual Reproduction in Plants

The process of reproduction in which the fusion of male and female gametes is essential is called sexual reproduction. The process of reproduction where formation of isogametes takes place is called conjugation. Those flowers, which contain only three parts of flower and lack one part either androecium or gynoecium, are called incomplete flowers. That flower which has all four parts, calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium, are called bisexual flower.This note explains the process of reproduction in plants

Fern Morphology

Fern belongs to the division Pteridophyta because they have the feathery leaf. This note gives the detailed explanation of morphology of ferns.

Sexual Reproduction in Fern

In this note Reproduction of Fern plant has been described to understand Reproduction in plants through spores. The male reproductive organ in fern is Antheridia. Antheridia contain male gametes "The Antherozoids". It grows just above rhizoids. Each antheridium is circular in shape and have nearly 32 antherozoid mother cells. Archegonia grows near the top of the prothallus. Each archegonium is divided into two parts lower venter and upper neck. When archegonia and antheridia mature, archegonia secretes mali

Mushroom Reproduction

The reproduction in mushroom is different from other plants. This note explains how mushroom reproduce.