Stimulation And Reaction

Upon completion of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Describe tropism and taxis of plant and animals.
  • Explain different types of glandular system.
  • Differentiate endocrine and exocrine glands.
  • Identify different components of nervous system with their function.


Taxis and Tropism

Stimulation is the process of inducing any living organisms to show some response. Reaction is the movement which is shown by an organism in response to the source of stimulus. This note explains what taxis and tropism is with their examples.

Glandular System

Those organs that produce enzymes or hormones and plays important role for metabolism of body are called glands. This is a short introduction note on glandular system which is an aggregate of endocrine and exocrine gland.

Endocrine System

Endocrine System is the network of glands that secrete hormones that regulate many bodily functions. Hormones are those chemical substances secreted by endocrine glands and heterocrine glands. This note is the detailed explanation on endocrine system and their glands.

Human Brain

Brain is the processing center of a human body. It is protected inside cranium (also called brain box) in the skull. There are three layers of membranes (connective tissue) that covers the brain called meninges. Brain has grey matter outside and grey matter inside. Average surface area for the human brain is 2500 cm square. This note is the detailed description of human brain.

Peripheral and Autonomic Nervous System

Peripheral nervous system includes the nerves that arise from the brain and spinal cord. There are 31 pairs of nerves that arise from the spinal cord and called spinal nerve. They connect the organ system to the brain.This is a short note explanation of what peripheral and autonomic nervous system are.

Introduction to Nervous System

The system that receives and transmits the stimulus, to and from the brain is called nervous system. The cell that transmits the message one part of the body to the other part is called nerve cell or neuron. This is a short introduction on human nervous system.

Spinal cord and Reflex actions

Spinal cord is the ling cylindrical part of CNS. It is present in neural canal of vertebral column. Spinal cord acts as the main center for reflex actions. Spinal cord acts as a link between spinal nerves and brain. Thus it participates in conscious actions. This note explains the anatomy and functions of the spinal cord.