Death Rate and Migration

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Overview

This note provides an information about the death rate and migration.
Death Rate and Migration

Death rate

Death is as natural as birth. It can be also called mortality and it decreases the population. Generally, death rate can be calculated in four ways:
  1. Crude Death Rate (CDR)
  2. Age Specific Death Rate (ASDR)
  3. Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
  4. Child Mortality Rate (CDR)
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
Crude death rate means the ratio of the total registered deaths of a particular year and mid-year population multiplied by 1000.

Mathematically,

Crude Death Rate =

CDR=
Age Specific death rate (ASDR)
Death is also called mortality. To find out age specific death rate, divide the total number of deaths in the specific age group in a year by the mid-year population of the same age group is the same year and multiply the result by 1000.

Mathematically,

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Age-Specific Death Rate =

i.e. ASDR =

Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
An infant means a baby who is below one year age by the total number of live births of infants in the same year and multiplying the result by 1000.

Mathematically,

Infant Mortality Rate=

IMR=

Child Mortality Rate (CMR)
Child means the baby below 5 years of age. The child mortality rate is simply calculated as a ratio of child deaths above zero years and under 5 years of age registered in an official record year to the total number of live births registered in the same year multiplied by 1000.


Migration

Migration means the movement of people from one place to another to work or to live. The movement of people within the country is called internal migration and the movement of people from one country to another is called international migration.
The people who shift from the original place are called out migrants and those people who live in their destination called in-migrants. In the same way people who shift from one country to another are called emigrants for departure and immigrants for the destination. The difference in the number of people due ti immigration and emigration in a country is called gross migration.

Various measures of migration are as follows: -

  1. In-Migration Rate
  2. Out-Migration Rate
  3. Net Migration Rate
  4. Gross Migration Rate

In-Migration Rate

In-Migration Rate deals with the people coming in to a place or a country.

Mathematically,

In-Migration Rate=


MR =


Out-Migration Rate

Out-Migration Rate deals with the people leaving the place of origin within or outside the country.

Mathematically,

Out-Migration Rate=


i.e. MR =


Net Migration Rate

Net Migration Rate refers to the difference of migrants. Net migration rate is the ratio of net-migration and the mid-year population in a year per every thousand population of that place.

Mathematically,

Net-Migration Rate =

i.e. NMR =


Gross Migration Rate

Gross Migration Rate deals with the measurement of the total volume of migration or population turnover a country or a place is experiences in a particular year.

Mathematically,

Gross Migration Rate=

i.e. GMR=

or

Gross Migration Rate =

i.e.GMR =

Things to remember
  • Death is as natural as birth. It can be also called mortality and it decreases the population.
  • Generally, death rate can be calculated in four ways: Crude Death Rate (CDR), Age Specific Death Rate (ASDR), Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
  • and Child Mortality Rate (CDR).
  • Migration means the movement of people from one place to another to work or to live.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
Questions and Answers
In my opinion the objectives of People's Movement II are partially achieved and some other is in the process of achievement.
The government formed under the leadership of Mr. Girija Prasad Koirala lost confidence due to the conflict in his own party and finally the parliament got dissolved. Since the election was held in mid of the session, it's known as mid-term election.
I think detaining all the political leaders along with the Prime Minister on 19th Magh, 2059 by King Gyanendra is the immediate cause of people's Movement, 2062/63 B.S.
The first election of the Constituent Assembly was held on 28th Chaitra, 2064 BS in Nepal.
After the direct rule of the king Gyanendra after 19th Magh, 2061BS, the political parties under with the people and protested against it, which declares Nepal as a republic state. It was the need of time and is appreciable, too.
The works of the interim government after 2046 BS are:
  1. To make the constituent as multiparty democracy.
  2. To hold the general election.
Nepal was declared as the Democratic Republic on 15th Jestha 2065 BS.
The major issue of people's movement II was to restore the people's right seized by the king and establish Loktantra.
The 12 point agreement made between the then 7 political parties and the Nepal Communist Party Maoist had an impact on ending the king Gyanendra's autocracy through people's movement II.
We have acquired the Lokatantra, some rights are added, threw monarchy replacing the republican system after People's Movement II of 2062/63 but people's expectations have not been attained, still there is instabilities pushing country to darkness.
The main achievement of the second people's movement 2062/63 was the autocracy of the then king Gyanendra along with the end of armed movement of the undergrounded Maoist.
A list of three good and bad works carried out during the period of democratic system between 2046 and 2065 are:
  • Making balance in foreign relationship
  • Continuity to parliamentary and multiparty democracy and
  • Overwhelming change in budgeting system.

Bad works:
  • Over expenses for the party system
  • Unstable government
  • Rise of nepotisms and favoritism
The mass movement second formally started on 24th Chaitra 2063 and ended on 11th Baisakh 2063 BS. It was mainly against the undemocratic steps of the then King Gyanendra who had seized the state power in his hand. Nepal was declared as a federal democratic republic state with secularism, then.
  • After the changes of 2063 BS, my community has had, are mentioned hereunder,
  • The Maoist war started in 2052 ended and general people feel safer form the suppression the conflicting parties put forward against the people.
  • Bandha and other strikes have decreased as there is political consensus given more priorities even at local level.
  • People feel peace and security prevailed as the rivals have an opportunity to meet with the authority democratically.
  • Developmental activities are taking place faster than they used to be as public participation has been given more priority.
  • Religious harmony exists everywhere as there is secularism adopted at the level of state.

Here, after the movement of 2062/63 BS, we have been able to achieve many other changes including those mentioned above.
The Maoist handed over the forty point demands to the government of Sher Bdr. Deuba and started the armed revolution. This revolution has lost about 14 thousands lives. After 10 years of armed revolution, they came back in the main stream of national politics. This revolution has brought the following changes:
  • Establishment of Lok Tantra
  • Completion of the election of Constituent Assembly
  • End of Autocrats.
  • Growth of political consciousness among the people
  • First participation of people to write constitution
  • Declaration of Republican Nepal
  • End of monarchism
  • Growth of nationalism among the people.
  • Mechanism of federalist approach.

Negative Changes:
  • Destruction of physical structures of development
  • Loss of 14 thousand people
  • Thousands of people have become war and conflict victims.
  • Starting of armed politics.
The step taken by the king was totally against the democracy because:
  • He dissolved the government of Sher Bdr. Deuba.
  • He misused article 127 of the Constitution of Nepal 2047 BS.
  • He selected prime minister form among his supporters
  • People opposed this task
  • He controlled over the rights of the people
  • Political parties opposed it
Each and every activities of king Gyanendra proved that he wanted to be active ruler. His step of Magh 19, 2031 clearly proved his desire to rule actively. He dissolved all the elected bodies and took executive power in his hand. His acts were badly criticized from out of the country or inside the country. He started to control over the activities of political parties. He started his sawari campaign to collect the supports from the people
This activity of the king increases the gap between the king and the people. All the people and political parties massively opposed the act of king. They ignored the whole monarchism. They gave the side for republicanism. This way people's movement II started and ended the active rule of the king. Ultimately monarchism ended in Nepal. Nepal has been the republican state.
We class 10 students discussed and concluded the following points:
  • Multi-party democracy
  • Bi-cameral parliament
  • Constitutional monarchism
  • Reformation in fundamental and human rights
  • Government of people
  • Adult franchise etc.
A list of three good and three bad works carried on during the period of democratic system between 2046 to 2060 BS are:
Good works
  • Overwhelming change in budgeting system
  • Continuity to parliamentary and multi-party democracy and
  • Making balance in foreign relationship.

Bad works
  • Inconstancy in government
  • Rise to nepotism and favoritism and
  • Over expenses for the party system
The peoples' movement I and the people's movement II held respectively in 2046 and 2062/63 are almost of same nature. Both of them aimed against the autocratic monarchy and restoration of people's rights and freedom. There is not found a definite number of the record of the martyrdom people got in both of the movement but it was expected of about altogether 100 people. This is indeed an example of the sacrifice they made for the positive changes to be brought in the country. Their contribution is always worthy ogf great /high respect, their sacrifice should be honored as long as the country survives. In my knowledge, the government that has done to respect their martyrdom as follows:
  • The names of some chowk, highways, buildings, parks etc. have been named after their names
  • Their family members are felicitated
  • Economic support programme are launched under their names.
  • The names are included in the posters, books, manuals published by the government.

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