Geographically Nepal extends 800 km from east to west in length and 200 km from north to south in width. The total area of Nepal is approximately 1, 47,181 s. q. km. About 73% of the total land is covered by the hills, mountains and the Himalayas. The plains of terai and inner and inner cover about 27% of the total land of Nepal. Nepal has all kinds of landscape and climates. The climate changes according to altitude. Different kinds of flora and fauna are found at different altitude in Nepal. The geographical structure of Nepal can be divided into three regions, they are:
The terai region has got hot climate. The soil is more fertile. Generally tall and timber producing trees Sal, Sissoo, Simal, Khayar, Asna, Karma, etc. are found. Besides these, tall trees, tall grasses like saccharum and Typha popularly known as jhari are also found in this region. The tropical forest and grasses provides habitat for many wild life like elephant, tiger, leopard, rhino, deer, swamp deer, etc. Timber are used for many purposes and grass plants are used as the raw materials for paper industry.
This region has mountains. It contains a narrow strips of low land with river banks and big valley like Kathmandu, Pokhara and Surkhet. It lies between 1500 m to 3000 m. In this region, the climate is cool, humid and pleasant and hence in general the climate is temperate. Different types of trees and herbs are found in this region according to climate. The important trees found in this region are Kattus, Okhar, Salla, Utis, Baanj, Chilawune, Guraans, Oak, Paiyan, Deodar, Chaani.
The Himalayan region lies in the north of the central mountain which extends from 2500 to 5000 m. Most of the peaks of this region are covered with snow. The climate of this region is cold and snowy in winter. Most of the trees are found only up to 400 m while the grass and other vegetation like shrubs are found up to 4500 m. The important trees of this region are Leksallo, Thegure, Gobre Sallo, Dhupisallo, Devder, Elma, Malpe, etc.
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