There are many causes that declines the population of particular area or place. Some of them are described below.
It is necessary to provide proper care to the infant and children. Children need a balanced diet too. It the infant death rate is high, it compels the parents to bear more child. The main causes of high infant mortality rate are given below:
Natural calamities like landslide, earthquake, floods and fire can destroy our life and property. Due to natural calamities a lot of people lose their life every year. Mainly the countries like China, India, Bangladesh and Philippines are very badly affected by such calamities. Those calamities adversely affect the condition of the environment. The earthquakes of 1990 and 2054 BS in Nepal were very destructive. Many temples, houses, partis and pauwas were damaged. due to the natural calamities. Tn December 2004 BS, tsunami, a terrible wave, killed more than hundred thousand people in Asian countries.
Weak economic condition
Poor people can not provide their children with balanced diet, hygienic cloths, health and education facility. Due to this many child suffer from diseases. Lastly children die due to the lack of treatment, Majority of people are jobless and unemployed.
Lack of health education
Health education is necessary for every individual. It gives knowledge about personal hygiene and healthy living. Uneducated people are ignorant about healthy life and better living. Lack of health education and knowledge causes high infant death rate.
Lack of health care and facilities
In our country the health service are provided by doctors, health assistants, nurses and vaidhyas. Some people may die ultimately due to lack of health facilities. Similarly, many people of rural area do not get proper health services and facilities for which many mothers and children are bound to lose their lives.
Causes of migration
Migration can change the population size of a place. It can directly affect the composition, distribution and growth of population of both the places of departure and destination. The causes of migration are better opportunities of employment availability of food, proper health services and better education. Nepal is affected by the migration of people from the rural to urban areas and from the mountain to terai regions.
Employment provides means and resources for good living. It helps to collect money and helps to manage basic needs.
Therefore, many young people seek job opportunities but villagers cannot get according to their desires. Industries and business firms, where people can earn money are in cities and towns and offer lucrative jobs for income.
Health service and facilities
Villages do not have good medical facilities. Village people lose their life even due to simple diseases because there is no timely access to health personnel and doctors. Comparatively more health education facilities are found in urban areas than villages. Where there are only health posts and health centers, that too with poor presence of doctors and with lack of medicines.
Education is the base of human civilization. The facilities and opportunities of getting quality and higher education are less in village areas. The people want to acquire quality and standard education. People also get various employment opportunities in city areas. Hence, the people leave their place of origin and migrate to the place where better of education facilities are available.
The transportation facility is one of the chief causes for migration into towns. In the countryside the people have to walk to work from one place to another, whereas there are no good roads and vehicles in villages. Present towns are provided with proper transportation facilities such as rick shaws, buses, cars etc. So, people can move easily in their place and carry out their business.