Subject: Grammar

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To change the form of a transitive verb is called voice.
Active (verb according to subject):Ram eats rice.
Passive: Rice is eaten by Ram.


  • Active Voice: Ram killed a tiger.
  • Exchange sub and object
  • Verb to be according to rule.
  • Third form of verb; kill - killed.
  • After verb: by, to of etc are used.

Verb to be used as follows:

  • simple present : am, is, are.
  • present continuous: am, is, are, + being.
  • simple past: was, were
  • past continuous: was/were + being.
  • past perfect: had + been.
  • simple future: sahll / will.
  • future perfect: will / shall + have been.


  • Ram knows me.
    \(\rightarrow\) I am known to Ram.

  • His behaviour surprised me.
    \(\rightarrow\) I was surprised at his behaviour.

  • Your attitude displeased them.
    \(\rightarrow\) They were displeased with your attitude.


  • Pronoun is changed when they are exchanged.
    I \(\rightarrow\) me, we \(\rightarrow\) us, they \(\rightarrow\) them, he \(\rightarrow\) him, she \(\rightarrow\) her etc.
    Example: He gave me a mango. \(\rightarrow\) A mango was given to me by him.
  • Some Verbs though they are transitive but they are not changed: seen, be, become appear, belong, owe, contain, consist, matter.
  • If we emphasize action not a person or if it is clear that action is carried out by any person by is removed.
    Example: People speak English all over the world. \(\rightarrow\) English is spoken all over the world.
  • If an active voice if "they say" is there, it will be "it is said". Similarly; no-one \(\rightarrow\) anyone, nobody \(\rightarrow\) anybody, nowhere \(\rightarrow\) anywhere etc.
  • If a sentecne is in imperative, the following rules are applied.
    Let + object+ be + pp
    Eat rice. \(\rightarrow\) Let rice be eaten.
  • Retained objects: (Two Objects)

Method of making passive

  1. Indirect object + verb to be +pp +direct object + by + sub.
    He taught us English Grammar.
    We were taught English Grammar by him.

  2. Direct object + verb to be +pp+ to + indirect object + by + sub.
    He taught us English Grammar.
    English Grammar was taught to us by him.

Interrogative Sentence (Yes/No, Wh)


Do you eat rice?
\(\rightarrow\) You eat rice. (Assertive)
\(\rightarrow\) Rice is eaten by you. (Passive)
\(\rightarrow\) Is rice eaten by you. (Change into question form)

Changing into passive

Did he give you money?
\(\rightarrow\) He gave you money. (Assertive)
\(\rightarrow\) Money was given to you by him. (Passive)
\(\rightarrow\) Was money given to you by him? (Changing into question form)

Changing Wh questioninto passive

Why did you give money?
\(\rightarrow\) You gave money.
\(\rightarrow\) Money was given by you.
\(\rightarrow\) Was money given by you?
\(\rightarrow\) Why was money given by you?

Questions begin with 'Who'

Who eat rice?
\(\rightarrow\) By whom was rice eaten.

Things to remember
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.

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