Other Rules

Subject: Grammar

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Other Rules

Present Tense

Simple Present

Frequency Adverbs:

  • always, often, never, seldom, sometimes, generally, usually, occasionally, rarely
  • these days/ nowadays
  • See, hear, feel, understand, know, like, love, hate, hope, belief, etc. are verbs of present continuous but written in the simple present.
    Example: I love singing a song.

Present Perfect

  • just, already, till now, how long, yet, recently, lately, so far ..........
    Example: He has not yet seen a tiger.
  • for period of time (5days): any tense
    since - point of time - present perfect or last
  • In the sense of has gone as in Nepal, afterverb 'be' preposition is used then it is written in present perfect.
    Example: He has been to Pokhara.
  • If in past two action completes in that case, 1st action is written in simple past and 2nd in past perfect.
    Example: When he started a business, he had already completed his MBA.
  • In two sentences, the first sentence is any action done and the second sentence there is effect then we have to write first sentence in the present tense.

Past Tense

Simple Past

  • action taken a long time before
  • helping verb no main verb and main verb no helping verb
    Example: He went.
  • the second form of a verb
  • If with 'every' time adverbial, there is 'ago' 'last', write in the simple past.
    Example: He went to the temple every last Saturday.
  • Time adverbials: yesterday, the other day, those days, in the past, just now, afterwards, at last or ancient, etc.
    Example: At last, we won the prize.
  • Before main verb, if there is 'last', it is written in simple past.
    Example: I last saw him at Chabahil.
  • If there is past event or past year, it is written in simple past.
    Example: He lost his left eye in the First World War.
  • for + period of time (5 days): Any tense
    In the sense of has gone and after verb 'be' two preposition is used then it is in present perfect.
    Example: He has been to Pokhara.
  • In past, two action completes in that case first action is written simple past and the second action is past perfect.
  • In two sentences, in 1st case any action is done and there is effect on 2nd case then we have to write in present tense.
    Example: He has beaten him. He is feeling pain.

Past Continuous

  • sub + was/were + v4 + obj
  • When the question is asked, at that time what situation, had if situation like present then it is past continuous.
    Example: -
    Question: What were you doing at 7:35 am yesterday?
    Answer: We were reading.
  • all + past adverbial = past continuous
    Example: He was making note all yesterday.
  • still + time adverbial = past continuous
    Example: He was still playing at that time.

Past Perfect

  • It indicates time of past.
  • It shows the work was just completed in past.
  • Though there is no time adverbial, it indicates about time of past.
  • If in past, there were two works, at that time, 1st action must be in past perfect and in 2nd in past.
  • When teacher arrived, the students had already gone. (1st action)
  • In indirect speech, instead of simple past, past perfect is used.
    Question: Hari said, "Ram went home."
    Answer: Hari said that Ram had gone home.

Past Perfect Continuous

  • It indicates about a time of past.
  • It shows time is taken more and he is on the way to complete work.
  • had been + v-ing is used
    Example: He has been going home. (It means he is on the way. He took more time, still he is not at home.)

Future Tense

Simple Future

  • Sub + shall/ will + v1 + obj
  • If we exchange shall and will it will sure.
  • Time advertised like tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, tonight, certainly, surely, positively, without fail, etc., we have to write in simple future.
    Example: I shall teach you English tomorrow.

Future Continuous Tense

  • Sub + shall/ will + be +v4 + obj
  • to be going to (Example: He is going to market.)
    (Present continuous in form but future continuous in meaning.)
  • Verb to be + going to + future time adverbial
    Example: He is going home tomorrow.
  • Same situation is applied as the present continuous.

Future Perfect Tense

  • Sub + shall/ will + have + v3 + obj
  • assuming any work or action will have just completed in given future time.
    Question: What will be there at 5:45 pm tomorrow?
    Answer: Our coaching class will have completed.
  • by + point of time or before + point of time or in + period of time
    Example: We'll have read coaching by 5:45 pm tomorrow.

Future Perfect Continuous

  • shall / will + have + been + v4 + obj

Things to remember
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.

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