Speech (Narration)

Subject: Grammar

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Speech (Narration)

General Rules (Applied in each sentence)

  1. While changing into indirect speech, inverted commas should be removed.

  2. If reporting verb is in present or future tense, tense of reported verb isn't changed.
    Ram says, "I go home."
    Ram says that he goes home.

  3. If reporting verb is in the past tense, tense of reported speech is changed as follows:
    • Simple present = Simple past
    • Present Continuous = Past continuous
    • Present perfect = Past perfect
    • Present perfect continuous = Past perfect continuous
    • Simple past = Past perfect
    • Past continuous = Past perfect continuous

    Ram said, "I went home."
    Ram said that he had gone home.
    If after said to is there, then only say is changed into tell or told or we can write said to i.e. same thing we casn write:
    'Ram says to me' or 'Ram tells me'

  4. Pronouns of reported speech are aslo changed according to noun or pronoun of reporting verb.
    - Ram said to me, "You speak English."
    Ram told me that I spoke English.
    - Ram said to you, "I lost my pen."
    Ram said to you that he had lost his pen.


    Third person of reported speech is never changed.
    Ram said to you, "I lost my pen.'
    Ram said to you that he had lost his pen.
    If 'we' is used in reported speech, instead of human beings or mankind, at that time 'we' is not changed.


    The teacher said,"We are mortal."
    The teacher said that we are mortal.
    If 'we', 'us' or 'our' are used instead of any newspaper, magazine then 'we' or 'our' changes into 'it'/ 'its'.


    The Rising Nepal said, "We publish our newspaper daily."
    The Rising Nepal said that it published its newspaper daily.

  5. If in reporting verb, both subject and object are used in third person and first person and the second person of reported speech is changed into third person but with whom it is related, we should write in brackets.


    Ram said to Mohan, "You a stupid boy, is not my frined."
    Ram said to Mohan that he (Mohan) a stupid boy, was not his (Ram's) friend.

  6. The following words are changed in reported speech:

    now then
    thus so
    here there
    this that
    these those
    tomorrow on the morrow, next day
    yesterday previous day
    tonight that night
    today that day
    ago before
    hence thence
    next day following day
    hither thither
    come go

    If the reporting verbis in the past, the following verb of reported speech are also changed:

    shall should
    will would
    can could
    may might
    has had
    have had

Things to remember
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.

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