Sentence

Subject: Grammar

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Overview

Sentence

A sentence is a linguistic unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked. A sentence can include words grouped meaningfully to express a statement, question, exclamation, request, command or suggestion. It is a group of words which makes a sense.

Types of Sentences

  • Assertive: Any simple sentence which has yes/ no meaning. For eg: You didn't read English.
  • Imperative: Any sentence which begins with a verb and which has a sense of request, order, prohibition, forbid etc.For eg: Don't Play.
  • Interrogative: Any sentence having a question. For eg: Are you a student?
  • Optative: Any sentence which 'wish's betterment of other and begins with may and end with an exclamation. For eg: May you pass your exam!
  • Exclamatory: Any sentence which expresses joy, sorrows, pleasure and happiness. For eg: What a surprise!

Assertive Sentence

  • Affirmative (Yes) - Raman reads a book.
  • Negative (No): Raman does not read a book.

How to convert affirmative into negative?

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  • If there is countable on having helping verb and 'verb to be', then generally 'not' is changed into negative.
    Example:
    He is a boy. →He isn't a boy.
    They are students. →They are not students.
  • If there no helping verb in a sentence, in that case according to the tense 'do ott', 'does not' and 'did not' are used.
    Example:
    He went. →He didn't go.

Note

  1. In negative, only once the verb is written in the past and another verb should be written into the first form of the verb. Likewise, verb first time written into singular no. and another verb in v1.
    Example:
    He plays football in the world cup. →He does not play football in the world cup.

  2. If there is subject in the third person singular form. For example; He, she, it, cow, Ram, etc. and has to write in present tense without helping verb in that case, in verb es/ s should be added to make singular.

  3. If there is have/ has/ had and no main verb in a sentence, in that case, we have to use do not/ does not/ did not according to the tense.
    Example:
    He has a watch. →He does not have a watch.
    He had a watch. →He did not have a watch.

  4. If there is have/ had/ has in a sentence or another verb or past participle verb only 'not' is used.
    Example:
    I had stolen his watch.→ I had not stolen his watch.
    He has eaten rice. →He has not eaten rice.

  5. If a sentence begins with 'there' + helping verb + countable noun singular number = not.
    Example:
    There is a boy.→ There isn't a boy.

But if a sentence begins with there + uncountable noun + plural number = 'no'.
Example:
There are boys.→ There are no boys.

  • If a sentence has some + body, one thing, where then we can change into negative according to the following ways:
    some→ not
    Example:
    I have something.→ I have nothing.
    not→ any
    Example:
    There is not anything.

  • To make negative sometimes, we can use antonyms or opposite words without using no/ not.
    Example:
    He is a good boy.→ He is a bad boy.

  • Without using no/ not we can use negative forms of words.
    Example:
    He always comes late.→ He never comes late.

Interrogative Sentence

  • Yes/ No, begins with verb
    (helping verb + subject + main/ object + ?)
  • Wh
    Wh + helping verb + subject + v1 + object + ?)

Note

  • In interrogative, some is always changed into any.
  • In Wh, suitable Wh can be used to find the answer to subject/ object.
Things to remember
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.

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