Pronunciation

Subject: Grammar

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Overview

Pronunciation

Sounds

  1. Vowels
    • Monophthongs
    • Diphthongs
    • Triphthongs
  2. Consonants

Vowels

Long Vowels

Short Vowels

iː

sheep

ɪ

ship

e

head

ɑː

farm

æ

hat

É™

above

uː

coo

ÊŠ

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foot

Éš

mother (US)

ɔː

horse

É’

sock (UK)

ɝ

worm (US)

ɜː

bird

ɪ

ship

e

head

Consonants

Voiced

Voiceless

b

book

p

pen

d

day

t

town

É¡

give

k

cat

v

very

f

fish

ð

the

θ

think

z

zoo

s

say

Ê’

vision

ʃ

she

dÊ’

jump

tʃ

cheese

l

look

 

 

r

run

 

 

j

yes

 

 

w

we

 

 

m

moon

 

 

n

name

 

 

Å‹

sing

 

 


Diphthongs

eɪ

day

aɪ

eye

ɔɪ

boy

aÊŠ

mouth

əʊ

nose (UK)

oÊŠ

nose (US)

ɪə

ear (UK)

eÉ™

hair (UK)

ÊŠÉ™

pure (UK)

Monophthongs

əˈ ‘अ’:
about (əˈbaʊt), afraid (əˈfreɪd), today (təˈdeɪ), ago (əˈɡəʊ), alive (əˈlaɪv), attack (əˈtæk), polite (pəˈlaɪt), away (əˈweɪ), banana (bəˈnɑː.nə), together (təˈɡeð.ər), position (pəˈzɪʃ.ən), attend (əˈtend), etc.

i: ‘ई’ : (long):
he (hi:), me (mi:), she  (ʃiː), there (ðeər), read (ri:d), brief (bri:f), green (gri:n), etc.

i ‘इ’ (short):
give (ɡɪv), city (sɪt.i), example (ɪɡˈzɑːm.pəl), women (wɪm.ɪn), palace (pælis), English (ɪŋ.ɡlɪʃ), business (bɪz.nɪs), etc.

e ‘ए’:
get (ɡet), friend (frend), empty (emp.ti), breakfast  (brek.fəst), temple (tem.pəl), bury (ber.i), breath (breθ)

æ ‘अया’:
am (æm), and (ænd), an (ən), cat (kæt),tank (tæŋk), marry (mær.i)

ɑ ‘आ’ (long):
pass (pɑːs), bark (bɑːk), father (fɑː.ðər), answer (ɑːn.sər), guard (ɡɑːd), tomato (təmɑː.təʊ), dance (dɑːns), basket (bɑː.skɪt), heart (hɑːt), clerk (klɑːk)

ɒ ‘ओ’ (short):
box (bɒks), from (frɒm), got (ɡɒt), orange (ɒr.ɪndʒ), knowledge (nɒl.ɪdʒ),  sorry (sɒr.i), cough (kɒf)

ɔ ओ (long):
fall (fɔːl), wall (wɔːl), tall (tɔːl), always (ɔːl.weɪz), daughter (dɔː.tər), fourteen (fɔːˈtiːn), walk (wɔːk), morning (mɔː.nɪŋ), caught (kɔːt)

ʊ उ: (short):
book (bʊk), would (wʊd), bosom (bʊz.əm), woman (wʊm.ən), look (lʊk), took (tʊk)

u: ‘ऊ’ (long):
who (huː), foolish (fuː.lɪʃ), loose (luːs), music (mjuː.zɪk), beautiful (bjuː.tɪ.fəl), group (ɡruːp), soon (suːn)

ʌ ‘अआ’:
come (kʌm), mother (mʌð.ər), month (mʌnθ), some (sʌm), wonder (wʌn.dər), brother (brʌð.ər), love (lʌv), once (wʌns), sun/ son (sʌn), but (bʌt), blood (blʌd), buffalo (bʌf.ə.ləʊ), touch (tʌtʃ), young (jʌŋ), us (ʌs)

ɜː ‘अ’: (long):
bird (bɜːd), first (fɜːst), sir (sɜːr), her (hɜːr), early (ɜː.li), girl (ɡɝːl), world (wɜːld), earth (ɜːθ)

ə ‘अ’:
again (əˈɡen), afraid (əˈfreɪd), today (təˈdeɪ), ago (əˈɡəʊ), polite (pəˈlaɪt), away (əˈweɪ), together (təˈɡeð.ər), about (əˈbaʊt), attend (əˈtend), position (pəˈzɪʃ.ən)

 

Diphthongs

eɪ (एइ):
day (deɪ), brave (breɪv), name (neɪm), break (breɪk), play (pleɪ), able (eɪ.bəl), great (ɡreɪt), gate (ɡeɪt), gave (ɡeɪv), make (meɪk), table (teɪ.bəl), eight (eɪt), paper (peɪ.pər), game (ɡeɪm), patient (peɪ.ʃənt)

aɪ (आइ):
white (waɪt), either (aɪ.ðər), time (taɪm), idea (aɪˈdɪə), write (raɪt), like (laɪk)

ɔɪ (ओइ):
boy (bɔɪ), oil (ɔɪl), joy (dʒɔɪ), boil (bɔɪl), point (pɔɪnt), poison (pɔɪ.zən)

əʊ (अउ):
go (ɡəʊ), open (əʊ.pən), no (nəʊ), old (əʊld), cold (kəʊld), know (nəʊ), road (rəʊd), post (pəʊst), clothes (kləʊðz), close (kləʊz), both (bəʊθ), home (həʊm), over (əʊ.vər), soap (səʊp), toe (təʊ), those (ðəʊz)

aʊ (आउ): 
cow (kaʊ), how (haʊ), now (naʊ), down (daʊn), proud (praʊd), doubt (daʊt)

ɪə (इअ):
ear (ɪər), dear (dɪər), pear (peər), here (hɪər), fear (fɪər), hero (hɪə.rəʊ)

eə (एअ):
chair (tʃeər), there (ðeər), hair (heər), bear (beər), where (weər), air (eər), pair (peər)

ʊə (उअ):
poor (pʊr), pure (pjʊər), tour (tʊər), sure (ʃʊər), endure (ɪnˈdʒʊər), cure (kjʊər), during (dʒʊə.rɪŋ)

 

Consonant phonemes

p (प्) b (ब्):
pit (pɪt), post (pəʊst), peach (piːtʃ), cup (kʌp), boast (bəʊst), symbol sɪm.bəl ()

no p and b pronunciation:
cupboard (kʌb.əd), receipt (rɪˈsiːt), psalm (sɑːm), pneumonia (njuːˈməʊ.ni.ə), limb (lɪm), comb (kəʊm), debt (det), doubt (daʊt), subtle (sʌt.əl), thumb (θʌm)

t (ट) ʊ (द):
town (taʊn), written (rɪt.ən), wrote (rəʊt), road (rəʊd), latter (læt.ər), water (wɔː.tər), ridden (rɪd.ən)

k (क) g (ग):
class (klɑːs), could (kʊd), coal (kəʊl), lock (lɒk), goal (ɡəʊl), log (lɒɡ)

no pronunciation
know (nəʊ), gnat (næt), reign (reɪn), knit (nɪt), sign (saɪn)

tʃ (च) dʒ (ज):
chin (tʃɪn), chain (tʃeɪn), kitchen (kɪtʃ.ən), watch (wɒtʃ), gin (dʒɪn), pigeon (pɪdʒ.ən)

f (फ) v (भ):
fine (faɪn), few (fjuː), proof (pruːf), vine (vaɪn), leave (liːv), save (seɪv), fat (fæt), leaf (liːf), safe (seɪf), vat (væt), prove (pruːv)

θ (थ) ð (द):
thief (θiːf), both (bəʊθ), wreath (riːθ), earthy (ɜː.θi), author (ɔː.θər), breath (breθ), clothe (kləʊð), wreathe (riːð), worthy (wɜː.ði), bathe (beɪð), faith (feɪθ)

s (स्) z (ज):
seal (siːl), ass (æs), sink (sɪŋk), bus (bʌs), looser (luːs), racing (reɪ.sɪŋ), lacy (leɪ.si), place (pleɪs), false (fɒls), zeal (ziːl), as (æz), buzz (bʌz), loser (luː.zər), lazy (leɪ.zi), plays (pleɪ), falls (fɔlz)

ʃ (श) ə (ज):
sheet (ʃiːt), shop (ʃɒp), sugar (ʃʊɡ.ər), Asia (eɪ.ʒə), sure (ʃɔːr), pleasure (pleʒ.ər), leisure (leʒ.ər), usual (juː.ʒu.əl), confusion (kənˈfjuː.ʒən), decision (dɪˈsɪʒ.ən), shame (ʃeɪm), show (sləʊ), sort (sɔːt), erasure (ɪˈreɪz), same (seɪm), so (səʊ), short (ʃɔːt), razor (reɪ.zər), risen (raɪz)


Pronunciation of English Alphabets

ei : bi :si : di : i : ef : dzi : etʃ : ai : dzei : kei : el : em : en : au : pi : kjÊŠ : a:(r) : es : ti : jÊŠ : vi : d∧bljÊŠ : eks : wai : zed :

Prounciation of Contraction

a : nt / = aren't
kÊŠdnt / = couldn't
iznt / =isn't
haəznt = hasn't
haədnt = hadn't
maitny = mightn't
nidnt : needn't
ʃa :nt = shan't
waznt = wasn't
wÊŠdnt : wouldn't 
ka : nt/ = can't
didnt/ = didn't

Things to remember
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.

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