Subject: Grammar

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A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition plus a noun or pronoun (the object of the preposition). The object of the preposition is just a fancy name for the noun or pronoun that that follows the preposition. It is a word which shows the relation of noun/ pronoun.

Types of Preposition

  1. Preposition of time
  2. Preposition of space
  3. Preposition of direction
  4. Miscellaneous

Preposition of time (at, on, in, till, until, to, for, from, since, by, during, before, after etc.)

    1. At
      to indicate time by watch.
      Example: The class starts at 12:00 P.M.
      • Name of Festival. 
        Example: I will go home at Dashain.
      • Before daybreak, sunrise, sunset.
        Example: He will arrive at sunset.
      • Before Parts of Day, morning, afternoon, evening, night, midnight, midday but there should not be article 'the'.
        Example: He gets up at morning. (He gets up in 'the' morning.)
      • Before movement or time but there must be this, that any boundary.
        Example: He can arrive at any time.
    2. On / In
      • Before Name of Day and Date 'on'.
        Example: He was born on Monday.
      • Bigger than the day like the name of a month, season, century, decade etc. 'in'.
        Example: He will go in 1998.
      • 'In' is used before period of time.
        Example: He will return back in two years.
      • To show state of age like infancy, childhood, in old age in youth.
        Example: Sushil Koirala died in old age.
    3. Till / Until (सम्म)
      period of time
      Example: I'll teach till/ until 5 o' clock.
    4. For (सम्म)
      period of time
      Example: We will read for 6 hours. (६ घण्टा सम्म)
    5. To
      only that place (not others)
      Example: He goes to school. (सरासर स्कुलमा मात्र)
    6. For/ Since
      • 'for' any tense to show period of time
        Example: I have been sick for 3 days.
      • 'since' point of time, and only in perfect tense.
        Example: He has been sick since last Sunday.
      • If any clause indicates time, 'since' is used.
        Example: He has been here since he got married.
      • Where there are till, until, to used to show as a pair 'from'.
        Example: He works from morning to evening.
    7. By (सम्ममा)
      by 5 pm (५ बजे सम्ममा)
      at 5 pm (५ बजे ठिक)
      5 pm sharp (पछि)

Preposition of space (at, on, in, into, inside, outside, over, under, above, below etc.)

  1. At
    not separate inside or outside, to show a certain point or to show nearly
    Example: Where can be? \(\rightarrow\) at bus stop, shop, platform etc.


  2. On
    any object either in hanging/ sticking condition
    Example: The picture is on the wall.
  3. In
    inside depth or within certain boundary
    Example: The book is in the bag.
  4. On
    generally 'on' indicates rest position
    Example: The duster is on the table.
  5. Onto
    with force or motion if any object, place 'onto' anywhere.
  6. Into
    from outside to inside in motion
  7. Inside
    inside but at any point, side place
    Example: They are sitting inside the class.
  8. Outside
    'outside' is used for any point or place.
    Example: He is standing outside the class.
  9. Over
    vertically above \(\uparrow\)
    Example: The plywood is over my head.
  10. Under
    vertically down \(\downarrow\)
    Example: There is a mouse under the table.
  11. Above
    above one layer to another
  12. Below
    below one layer to another
    Example: He is sitting below the fan.
  13. Over
    partially or fully covered

Preposition of direction (, through, towards, along, across, by pass, into, onto, of, off, against)

    If anything from one place to another place straight, in that case '' is used.
    Example: There is tarred road from Chabahil to Jorpati.
    If any object or person in motion goes fro one point to another point.
    Example: He is coming from school to house.

  2. through
    If any object or thing on the way for short time disappears and re-emerge, then through is used.
    Example: He went through a tunnel.

  3. towards
    goes somewhere, at last reaches where he/ she wants
    may at last, reaches where he wants to go, or may not he go or he goes somewhere else and at last he reaches where he wants to go.

  4. along
    goes/ moves in motion in a straight path or wants to go in straight path
    Example; He goes along the road. (does not change his side)

  5. by
    any person/ thing goes near by anything in motion.
    Example: I went by the tree.

  6. past
    any person/ thing goes near by anything in motion and then passed it.
    Example: I went by the tree and past it.

  7. across
    not to go straight and not to disappear
    Example: He went across the road.

  8. up
    to go to a certain height
  9. down
    to come down from certain height

  10. onto
    Example: He stepped onto the wall, went along it, jumped off the wall, then returns back.

  11. round
    Example: he goes round the ground.

Miscellaneous Preposition

  1. by; agent: Nischal
    The letter was written by Nischal.
  2. with: instrument: pen
    Example: We write with a pen.
  3. beside: side of any person/ thing
    Example: He sits beside me.
  4. besides: except
    Example: Besides Nischal, other all were beaten.
  5. in: used in clothes or ornaments
    Example: He is in new dress.
  6. with: carrying something
    Example: A man with basket is coming.
  7. of: to show temporary character/ age
    Example: She is a girl of 16.

Special use of 'to' with Adjective

new to loyal to fatal to harmful to faithful to
kind to injurious to superior to obedient to rude to
similar to cruel to inferior to liable to polite to

Special use of 'at'

clever at shocked at bad at quick at good at
efficient at expert at astonished at prompt at lucky at

Special use of 'of',  'with' and 'to'

afraid of ahead of ashamed of assist with alternate to
acquainted with agree with agree with aware of accuse of

Special use of other prepositions

absorbed in abstain from (avoid) accustomed to avail of (to get benefit) apart from
agree to borrow from bent for beneficial to by the taxi
by air on horse-back on foot boast of compare with
care for dream of content with congratulate on contray to 
dependent on deprive of envious of revenge on prohibit from
popular with mad after repent of remind of stare at
thirst for cause of curse to certain of delight in
different from desirous of die of eager for relay on
remedy for owe to knock down sick of true to
useful to unknown to wrong about yield to wait for

Prepositional Phrase

  • bear out: पुष्टि गर्नु 
  • blow out: फुकेर निभाउनु 
  • break into: जबरजस्ती पस्नु 
  • break out: फैलिनु 
  • call on: घरमा गएर भेट्नु 
  • catch up with: पिछा गरेर समाउनु 
  • care about: रूची राख्नु 
  • care for: हेरविचार गर्नु 
  • come across: भेट हुनु 
  • die out: लोप हुनु 
  • go through: पढ्नु 
  • live on: निर्वाह गर्नु 
  • run over: किच्नु 
  • take after: अनुहार मिल्नु 
  • turn over: पल्टाउनु 
  • make out: बुझ्नु 
  • look into: छानबिन गर्नु 
  • look for: खोजी गर्नु 
  • put aside: बचाएर राख्नु 
  • put out: निभाउनु 
  • put up with: सहनु 
  • pull off: स्थगित गर्नु

Things to remember
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.

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