A compound sentence is one having two or more co-ordinate clauses. Hence, it can be formed only with the help of coordinating conjunctions, which is known as joining sentence.
Joining the sentences with who, which, that, whose, whom, where
- If in both sentences, common words are used in the beginning of a sentence, then the following rule is applied:
Rule = common + Wh + the second + the first
- The man is a teacher. The man is standing outside.→ The man standing outside is a teacher.
- The place is very beautiful. I live in the place.→ The place where I live is very beautiful.
- The girl is my sister. You are reading the girl's book.→ The girl whose book you are reading is my sister.
- The boy is very intelligent. I was talking with the boy yesterday.→ The boy with whom I was talking yesterday is very intelligent.
- If common words are not used in the beginning of the sentence, use following rule:
The first + the common + Wh + the second
- He is the man. The man was waiting. →He is the man who was waiting for you at the post office.
- In some cases, rule (b) is not used. We should use the rule below in such case:
The first + the common + Wh + the second
- I met the girl yesterday. She is the girl. →She is the girl who I met yesterday.
Joining the sentences with while, as soon as, as long as, before, after, until.
The above words (while, as soon as, as long as, before, after, until) always indicate the time. So, when we join such type of sentences, we have to use such sentences before time clause and that sentences we have to change with time clause.
- We were watching the game. Somebody pushed us from behind.
→While we were watching the game, somebody pushed us from behind.
- I lost my pen. I was very sad.
→When I lost my pen, I was very sad.
- I knew that I had T.B. I consulted the doctor.
→When I knew that I had TB after consulted the doctor.
- The plane began to move along the road. The pilot told us to fasten our belt.
→Before the plane began to move along the road, the pilot told us to fasten our belt.
- Wait for me. I will come back.
→Wait for me until I come back.
- We reached there. Train had already left.
→When we reached there the train had already left.
Reason Connectives (as, because, since, because of)
They are used to join statements and reasons and before reason they have to be joined.
- He was absent because of his sickness.
- Because of his absence, he was sick.
- He was intelligent. He passed the exam.
→ As he was intelligent, he passed the exam.
→ Because he was intelligent, he passed the exam.
→ He passed the exam as he was intelligent.
→ He passed the exam because of his intelligence.
Since is used if the reason is negative.
- He failed the exam. He did not study hard.
→ He failed the exam since he didn't study hard.
Purpose Connectives (to, in order to, so that, for)
They are used to join action and purpose
to/ in order to:
- He teaches the students on the public holidays. He wants to help the students.
→ He teaches on public holidays to help the students.
→ He teaches on public holidays in order to help the students.
'So that' is used to join action and purpose but towards purpose they must be 'can', could, may, might, would, and moral verb.
- He went to school. He wanted to get education.
→ He went to school so that he could get education.
for + NP + to infinitive
- I opened the door. Hari wanted to come in.
→I opened the door for Hari to come in.
Joining Unexpected Result Connectives (though, although, in spite of)
They help to join situation and unexpected result but it is needed to use before situation.
- He was intelligent. He failed the exam.
→ Though he was intelligent, he failed the exam.
→ Although he was intelligent, he failed the exam.
→ Even though he was intelligent, he failed the exam.
→ In spite of his intelligence, he failed the exam
In Spite of:
It is used to join unexpected result and situation and while joining it is before situation. But after 'in spite of', noun phrase must be there.
- He was strong. He could not fight back.
→ In spite of his strength, he couldn't fight back.
Joining the sentences with therefore and however
However is used when there is opposite result but when we use therefore and however both sides comma is used.
- I have very little money. You can borrow what you need.
→ I have very little money, however, you can borrow what you need.
- He studied hard. He passes the exam.
→ He studied hard, therefore, he passed the exam.
Joining with not only...but also
To join above connective use the formulae:
Common = not only = uncommon = but also.
- He was hungry. He was tired.
→ He was not only hungry but also tired.
Joining with so...that
If there is very, extremely, to then they should be replaced by so and formulae is used: so + adj/ adv + that......
- It was very cold. We had to stop working.
→It was so cold that we had to stop working.
Joining with either...or
It helps to join affirmative sentence. It is used before uncommon words.
- Hari is a doctor. Hari is a teacher.
→ Hari is either a doctor or a teacher.
Joining with neither...nor
It is used to join negative sentence. To join with neither........nor it is needed to remove, not, did not, should not, does not, do not.
→ He is neither a teacher nor a doctor.