Areas of Grammar

Subject: Grammar

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Areas of Grammar

Areas of Grammar

  • Orthography: letters
  • Etymology: words
  • Syntax: sentences
  • Punctuation: different sign
  • Prosody: rhymes, regarding literature


Parts of a word which is used during the pronunciation of a word is a syllable. E.g. : teacher. To have a syllable one vowel must be there.


A group of a meaningful word which help to make a sentence is called phrase. E.g. : give up, in front of etc.

Types of Phrase

  1. Adjectival (a lot of)
  2. Conjunctional (as soon as)
  3. Adverbial (at al)
  4. Verbal (look for)
  5. Interjectional (for shame)
  6. Noun Phrase (bad blood/ enemity)
  7. Prepositional (in front of)


A part of the sentence having one subject and one finite verb is called clause. Finite verb helps to complete a sentence.


How to make Abstract noun?

dom: Wisdom, freedom, Kingdom
hood: childhood, neighbourhood, brotherhood
ing: walking, dancing, eating, fighting
ship: worship, friendship, hardship
ness: goodness, freshness, vastness
ht: health, truth
age: bondage, courage
ance: disturbance, repentance, acceptance
ence: absence, obedience
ancy: brilliancy, vacancy
ice: justice, service
ise: merchandise, exercise
tion: mention , connection
son: comparison, treason (offence against the state)
sion: occasion, illusion
eur: grandeur (greatness)
ery : stationery, cookery
ure: measure, agriculture
ity: reality, utility, creativity
ty: cruelty, country (kindness)
sal: disposal, proposal, refusal
acy: accuracy, intimacy
ic: logic, magic
ics: politics, ethics
ism: mutualism, criticism
asm: sarcasm, enthusiasm
acy: democracy, monarchy
gy: energy

In Nepali, abstract noun is called भाववाचक नाम and in the Nepali word ता, त, तो, पन, त्व, नु, आइ, ती, री, आउँछ। जस्तै: मित्रता, बालकपन, गुलामी आदि। 

How to write capital letters?

  • The first letter of a sentence must be capital.
  • Proper noun where ever it is used in a sentence, its first letter must be capital. (E.g. He is Ram. )
  • Proper adjective which is made of proper noun, its first letter must be capital (E.g. Nepal, Nepalese)
  • The first letter of any month, day, season.
  • The first letter of any language.
  • The first letter of a river, mountain, sea, ocean.
  • If 'I' come alone.
  • If 'O' comes as an interjection (E.g.O death!)
  • Short form of words(Abbreviation) is capital ? (E.g. J.H.S)
  • Name of a building or party
  • The main word of a title of any story poem, essay (E.g. The history of Money)
  • The first letter of each word of a festival (E.g.Durga Pooja)
  • Title of a person and name of the book
  • The first letter of each time of a poem
  • The first letter of a sentence within inverted comma.
  • The first letter of each word of the road.
  • The first letter of a river.
  • A pronoun used for God then first letter of pronoun (E.g. God is almighty. He is kind to all.)
  • Each first letter of human?s name. (E.g. Ram Bahadur Khadka)


Personal Pronoun

1st person

I  म, मैले

Me मलाई

Mine मेरो 

We  हामी (ले)

We  हामीलाई

Our  हाम्रो 

2nd person

You तिमी (ले), तिमीहरु (ले)

You तिमीलाई

Yours  तिमी, तिमीहरुको

3rd person

He  त्यो, त्यसले 

Him  त्यसलाई 

His त्यसको 

She  तिनी (ले) 

Her  तिनलाई 

Hers तिनको 

It  यो, यसले

It  यसलाई 

Its यसको 

They तिनीहरु (ले) 

Them  तिनीहरुलाई 

Their तिनीहरुको 

Things to remember
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.

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