Ecology, Bio-diversity, Sustainable Development, Climate Change and Environment Management

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Ecology, Bio-diversity, Sustainable Development, Climate Change and Environment Management


Living and non-living types of elements are found in the Earth. The relationship between animal, plant & nature means by ecology. The three natural sources arePerpetual, renewal, non-renewal sources. The examples of perpetual resources areSolar energy, wind energy, flowing water & volcanic eruption. The examples of non-renewable resources areOil & minerals. 1/3 part of the earth is occupied by water.

Sandy loam, Salty loam kind of soil is found in the mountain region. Alluvial soil & Sandy loam type of soil is found in the hilly region.15% percent of the land is occupied by mountain region. The main source of food elements is land and forest. 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, 0.003% Carbon denied, 0.93% Argon and 0.04% other gases are the gases found in the air. We can categorize water in three (Rainwater, surface water and land water) categories. Air means Colorless, odorless and mixture of gases, land, forest, water of animals is Habitat. The world ecology was coined in 1866 A.D. earnest Hackel was the first person to use word ecology.

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Biodiversity means Measure of different varieties of the earth animal, plant and microbe species of genetic differences within species and of the ecosystem. In 3 (Species diversity, Species diversity, Genetic diversity)group bio-diversity can be classified.

  • According to Environment conservation Act 2053, Biodiversity means "Ecosystem diversity, Species diversity, Genetic diversity".CITES was established in 1975 A.D. The full form of CITES isConvection of International Trade and Endangers Species of World Fauna and Flora. The main purpose of establishing CITES is To conserve endangered species.

  • What is the main purpose to establish CITES?

Ans: To conserve endangered species

  • What is the full form of WFF?

Ans: World Wildlife Fund

  • How many types of birds are conserved in Nepal?

Ans: Nine

  • How many types of reptiles are conserved in Nepal?

Ans: Three

  • How many types of mammals are conserved in Nepal?

Ans: Twenty-seven

  • When is the world biodiversity day celebrated?

Ans: Every December 22

  • In which region mostly grassy land is available?

Ans: Hilly region

  • In how many categories Ecosystem diversity can be categorized?

Ans: 2 (Land ecosystem diversity, wetland ecosystem)

  • What are the three important policies taken by the government to protect bio-diversity?


Conservation of forest

Agriculture diversity and

Conservation for wetland

  • According to biodiversity in which position Nepal is listed in the world list?

Ans: 25th position

  • How much could be the depth of wetland?

Ans: Six m. approved

  • When was the biodiversity treaty signed by the parliament of Nepal?

Ans: 23th November 1993 A.D

  • When was the biodiversity treaty started in Nepal?

Ans: 22nd Falgun, 1994 A.D (9th Falgun 2050 B.S)

  • When was the national heritage conservation policy approved?

Ans: 1988 A.D (2045 B.S)

  • According to ecosystem diversity in how many category Nepal can be divided?

Ans: 3 (Mountains, Hilly, Terai)

  • Which diversity is important in the increment and conservation of biodiversity year?

Ans: Wetland ecosystem

  • When did united nation organization celebrate international biodiversity year?

Ans: 2010 A.D

  • What plays the vital role to keep the environment in balance?

Ans: Biodiversity

  • How many species of birds are found in Nepal?

Ans: 867

  • How does ecosystem diversity form?

Ans: International ship between animals and Environment

  • What is the full form of IUCN?

Ans: The International Union for Conservation Nature

  • How many species of vulture are found in Nepal?

Ans: 8

  • How many species of snakes are found in Nepal?

Ans: 63

  • How many percents of land is occupied by wetland in Nepal?

Ans: 2.5%

Plant and Animals found in world

Plant type

Plant Group



Nepal (%)

























Animal type

Plant Group



Nepal (%)





























Sustainable Development:

  • When was Brundtland Commission established?

Ans: 1983 A.D

  • On whose chairmanship the General Assembly of United Nation suggest on environment development & world cooperation?

Ans: Prime minister of Norway G.H. Brundtland

  • What was the name of the report published by the commission?

Ans: Our Common Future

  • What can we call sustainable development?

Ans: Retaining development and bearable development

  • How should we explain sustainable development?

Ans: Use of present resources should not degrade the real income of future

  • What are the main aims of sustainable development?

Ans: Balance among population, various resources, various aspects of environment and development

  • When was sustainable development summit held in South Africa?

Ans: 2002 A.D

  • From which planning environment & sustainable development, management started in Nepal?

Ans: Sixth Plan

  • What is the main objective of sustainable development?

Ans: To preserve earth

  • What is the importance of sustainable development?


Proper use of resources

Aspect of development

Long term vision

Public participation

Accountability or responsibility

Limit of development

  • What are the principles of sustainable development?


Conservation of ecosystem

Conservation of biodiversity

Conservation of cultural heritage

Control of population growth

Development of sustainable society

Development of human resources

Increase of public participation

Limit of carrying capacity

Climate Change

  • When is the international save ozone layer day celebrated?

Ans: Every year September 16

  • When is the Sagarmatha day celebrated?

Ans: May 29

  • What is mean by absolute conservation?

Ans: To conserve natural resources as it is

Causes of climate change
  • List the main countries which play a vital role in climate change.

Ans: China, America, Russia, Britain, Japan, France, Germany, Italy, Indonesia, South Korea, North Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan

  • Which country uses most fuel?

Ans: China

  • When was under water conference held on Maldives in climate change and increasing sea level?

Ans: 24th October 2010 A.D

  • When was historic cabinet meeting held in Kalapatthar about climate change?

Ans: 19th Mangsir, 2066 B.S (4th December 2009)

  • At what height was the meeting held?

Ans: 18,192 Ft. above sea level

  • When was blackout day celebrated by WWF?

Ans: March 2010 A.D

  • When was the Green House effect found?

Ans: 1824 A.D

Environment Management

  • What is mean by Environment?

Ans: Surroundings which include: Physical, Chemical, Biological, Cultural and Social conditions of nature

  • When was environment conservation council established?

Ans: 250

  • Who remains the chairman of environment conservation?

Ans: Prime minister

  • Who remains the vice chairman of environment conservation?

Ans: Environment Minister

  • When was the Environment Conservation Act amended?

Ans: 2053 B.S

  • When was the Environment Protection Regulation amended?

Ans: 2054 B.S

  • When was the United Nation Environment Program (UNEP) established?

Ans: 15th December, 1972 A.D

  • How many departments are there in Environment Ministry?

Ans: Water and weather department

  • Which prize is known as the noble prize of environment?

Ans: Goldman Prize

  • Who was the first Nepali to get a Global 500 prize?

Ans: Dr. Krishna Kumar Pandey

  • In which article of Nepal, constitution environment conservation policy is managed?

Ans: Article 35(5)

  • When was the waste management Act amended?

Ans: 2066 B.S

  • When was the waste management Act started to implement?

Ans: 2067 B.S

  • From which planning, environment conservation plan started?

Ans: From sixth planning

  • How many person get gold man prize each year?

Ans: 6 persons from 6 continents

  • What is the amount of Gold man prize?

Ans: 75 thousand US$

  • When do we celebrate the world environment day?

Ans: 5th June

  • Which bird is known as the sweeper?

Ans: Vulture

  • When was Environment Conservation Association established?

Ans: 2050 B.S

  • What is the full form of CTBT?

Ans: Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

  • When was first international environment conference held?

Ans: 1972 A.D (Sweden, Stockhome)

  • What was the first slogan of the first environment day?

Ans: Only one earth

Things to remember
  • The relationship between animal, plant & nature is ecology.
  • types of natural sources:
  • Perpetual
  • renewal
  • non-renewal sources
  • Gases found in air:
  • 78% Nitrogen
  • 21% Oxygen
  • 0.003% Carbon denied
  • 0.93% Argon
  • 0.04% other gases
  • Surroundings which include Physical, Chemical, Biological, Cultural and Social conditions of nature is known as Environment.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
Videos for Ecology, Bio-diversity, Sustainable Development, Climate Change and Environment Management
Bill Nye: The Science Guy - Biodiversity (Full Episode)
Biodiversity Final Video
Biodiversity Video
Ecology Documentary
Environmental Management System (EMS) - English
Essentials of Forest Ecology
Green Economy and Sustainable Development: Bringing Back the Social
Sustainable Development mini-documentary

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