Some Basic Terms Used In Computer Science

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Overview

The physical parts of the computer which can be seen and touched is called hardware. This note explains some very basic terms used in computer science such as hardware, RAM, ROM, IC, Firmware, etc.
Some Basic Terms Used In Computer Science
  1. Hardware: These are the physical parts of the computer which can be seen and touched. For example, peripheral devices.
  2. Command: These are the instruction order given to the computer to do some specific work by the uses.
  3. Programme: These are the collection of instruction together in sequence and in logical way to solve problems.
  4. Software: It is the collection of programme for the computer to perform specific operation. For example, work processer, spread sheet.
  5. Memory It is the place in computer where data and information are stored for temporary and permanent use.
  6. RAM (Random Access memory ): It is the temporary memory, which is used for writing users data for very short period or as long as the power is on. It is also called volatile memory.
  7. ROM (Read Only Memory ): It is permanent type of memory which is used by computer and the data inside it cannot be edited.
  8. Firmware: The information written in Rom is permanent by a manufacture which is called firmware and is required for boot up procedure eg. Basic input/output system.
  9. Register Array: It is the memory inside the processor which holds data to process and result of operation temporary.
  10. Central Processing Unit (CPU): It is also called brain of computer because every operation done by the computer is performed by it. It control and co ordinations all other activities with in the computer system.
  11. Data: Data is the collection of raw fact. For example name of student, no of student, mark secured by student in their exam.
  12. Information: The useful data obtain from collection of data is called information.
  13. Auxiliary Storage (Hard disk): It is used to supply data and instruction to main memory. It can hold data in absence of power supply also. It is also called non-volatile memory.
  14. Input / Output (peripheral devices): Data and instructions are input from devices like keyboard, mouse, etc. information and results of processing are output to devices like monitor, printer etc. The input/output devices are known as I/O in short.
  15. Integrated Circuit (I.C): An integrated circuit is a small silicon semiconductor device, called chip containing electrical component such as transistor, diode resistor and capacitor. These various components are interconnected inside chip to form electrical circuit. The chip is mounted plastic package and connectors are wielded to external pin to form I.C.

    integrated circuits are used for a variety of devices, including microprocessors, audio and video equipment, and automobiles. Integrated circuits are often classified by the number of transistors and other electronic components they contain:

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    • SSI (small-scale integration):Up to 100 electronic components per chip
    • MSI (medium-scale integration):From 100 to 3,000 electronic components per chip
    • LSI (large-scale integration):From 3,000 to 100,000 electronic components per chip
    • VLSI(very large-scale integration):From 100,000 to 1,000,000 electronic components per chip
    • ULSI (ultra large-scale integration):More than 1 million electronic components per chip
Things to remember
  • The physical parts of the computer which can be seen and touched is called hardware.
  •  The information written in Rom is permanent by a manufacture which is called firmware
  •  The useful data obtain from collection of data is called information.
  • Data is the collection of raw fact. 
  • An integrated circuit is a small silicon semiconductor device, called chip containing electrical component such as transistor, diode resistor and capacitor. 
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
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Questions and Answers

An integrated circuit is a small silicon semiconductor device, called chip containing electrical component such as transistor, diode resistor and capacitor.

CPU is an electric brain to computer which process and controls all the activity of computer system. The section of CPU are:
  • Control unit
  • Arithmetic and logic unit
  • Memory unit
ROM RAM
i. It stands for Read only memory i. It stands for Random Access memory.
ii. It is non-volatile (permanent) memory. ii. It is volatile (temporary) memory.
iii. It's types are PROM, EPROM, EEPROM etc. iii. It's types are SRAM, DRAM etc.
Random Access Memory is called volatile memory because its data contents remain permanent and do not loss as soon as electricity in not supplied.
Read Only Memory is called non volatile memory because its data contents remain permanent and do not loss as soon as electricity is not supplied.
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