The Physical Features of Europe

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Europe lies entirely in the Northern Hemisphere. Physically the Europe is divided into three distinct regions: Scandinavian Highlands, Southern Mountains, Central Lowlands. This note contains a description of Physical Features of Europe.
The Physical Features of Europe

Physical Features of Europe

Europe is the second smallest continent . It is located in the Northern and mid –land hemisphere of the earth . It has an area about 104,98,000 of the total land . Europe stretches from 35oN to 71oN latitude and 24oW to 65oN longitude .The average length of the continent from east to west is 6400 km and the average width is 4800 from the south to north. It is surrounded by oceans and seas from three sides . The important attractions of the continent are the longest coastlines among all the continents with oceans , sea , islands , bays and gulf.

political Map of Europe
political Map of Europe

Physical featuresIt is described as the peninsula of peninsulas . A peninsula is the piece of land surrounded by the water on three sides . It is the peninsula of the Eurasian supercontinent is bordered by the Arctic ocean to the north , the Mediterranean , Black and Caspian sea to the south , the Atlantic ocean to the west . Gibraltar strait which has the width of 14km between Spain and Mediterranean which separates the continent of Africa. The Ural mountains and the Ural River separate from Asia.

On the basis of their landform Europe is divided into three major physical division :

  1. The Southern Mountains: The southern part of Europe is formed by a number of mountains and plain. The southern mountain is as young fold mountains . During Alpine when the Himalayas were formed. This region includes all the Pyrenees , Apennines , Dinaric Alps etc. The highest mountain peak Mount Elbrus ( 5,642 m) (18,510 feet) is the highest mountain in the Caucasus mountain of Russia.
  2. The North- Western Highlands: The highlands of north and north- west from Norway and Sweden in the east and Scotland in the west . The western edge of Europe and define the physical landscape of Scandinavia. Norway ,Sweden ,Denmark , etc. These highlands are defined by hard ancient. Many of European fjords are located in Iceland and Scandinavia.
  3. The Central European Plain: The Central European plain extends from the Southern United kingdom to east up to Russia. The most of the European plain lies below 152 meters in elevation. It is home to many navigable rivers , including the Rhine , order, and the Vistula. The Danube is the largest river of Europe. Due to favourable climate and good production, this is the most populated region of Europe.


Fig: Stream path flow
Fig: Stream path flow

From the Far – North where it is very cold , with much snow , a long period of darkness in the winter and short summer with temperatures with temperatures near freezing. Due to its temperate zone and the having the longest coastal line, most part of Europe has a temperate climate. Whereas in the Eastern part of Europe, it has the humid continental type of climate.

Natural Vegetation

Europe lies mostly in the North Temperate Zone . The vegetation of Europe is not as big as in Asia. The natural vegetation of Europe can be divided into five types .They are explained below:

  1. The Mediterranean Vegetation: The Mediterranean Vegetation is found in the Mediterranean region of southern Europe .The trees like olive ,lavender and laurel are mostly found.
  2. The Temperate Forest: The temperate forest is found in central and South – West part of it .The type of vegetation is called the deciduous forest . The trees like ash, elm etc.
  3. Tundra Vegetation: This types of vegetation is found in the extreme north. Mostly this parts is cover with snow throughout the year .In this vegetation we can found here are mosses , lichens and bushes and reindeer, polar bear and wolves are some of the examples of wild animals .
  4. The Coniferous Forest: In the southern part of tundra region ,which is also called Taiga is also found in coniferous forest .Some example of trees that are found in the region are fir, pain, spruce etc and the animals that are found in the region are the lynx ,mink etc.
  5. The Steppes: In the eastern part of Europe the steppes is found . It is plain which treeless .This types of grassland are found in the countries like Romania, Russia etc.

Things to remember
  • Europe lies entirely in the Northern Hemisphere, crossed by the Arctic Circle in the north.
  • Physically the Europe is divided into three distinct regions: Scandinavian Highlands, Southern Mountains, Central Lowlands.
  • Apart from the Far-North in Europe, it is very cold, with much snow, a long period of darkness in the winter and short summer with temperatures near freezing.
  • Europe is a peninsula of the Asian landmass, Russia and Turkey are in  Asia and Europe, the division between the two continents being the Ural Mountains, Ural River, Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
Videos for The Physical Features of Europe
Geography of Europe
Physical Geography of Europe and Russia
Questions and Answers

Europe is called Peninsula of Peninsulas because Europe has many peninsulas projecting into the sea and Europe is itself a Peninsula.

Steppe is extensive grass lands spread from the west of Caspian Sea, in the interior part of the continent of Asia.

Mediterranean regions have hot and dry summer and wet and cool winters. This type of climate is suitable for fruit culture. Orchard farming is a major activity of this region. Citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons, grape and limes are extensively cultivated in many parts of this region. Wines are prepared from grapes and exported to markets all over the world. Olives are grown for oil. Nuts such as chest nuts, walnuts and almonds are grown. A large no. of fruit canning industries is established here. So this region is called “the garden of the world”. This is why fruit farming is popular in Mediterranean region of Europe.

Southern Europe between 13 degree N – 45 degree N latitude, has Mediterranean type of climate. Such climate has bright sunny, hot and dry summers and mild rainy winters. On shore, westerly wind blows from the sea to the land in winter and brings rainfall. This is the only climatic type in which there is rainfall only in winter. The summer temperature is about 24 degree C and the winter temperatures are about 13 degree C.

Most of the European countries are developed because

  1. They have become able to bring positive changes in everyone’s life.
  2. They have become established all infrastructures of development.
  3. They have established several kind of industries and have become successful in balancing trade.
  4. They have properly utilized their available resources.

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