## Mixture

Subject: Science

#### Overview

A mixture is defined as a mass obtained by mixing up two or more chemically non-reactive substances in any proportion by weight. A homogeneous mixture is defined as a mass in which the particles of the components of the mixture are equally distributed. A heterogeneous mixture is defined as a mass in which the particles of components of the mixture are not equally distributed. This note gives further information about solubility, mixture, solution, colloids and suspensions.
##### Mixture

A mixture is defined as a mass obtained by mixing up two or more chemically non-reactive substances in any proportion by weight. There are two types of mixture. They are as follows:

#### 1. Homogeneous mixture:

A homogeneous mixture is defined as a mass in which the particles of the components of the mixture are equally distributed. Examples: Sugar solution, air, alcohol water, brass, soda water etc

#### 2. Heterogeneous mixture

A heterogeneous mixture is defined as a mass in which the particles of components of the mixture are not equally distributed. Examples: Smoke, Oily water, Sandy water, etc.

On the basis of the size the particles are divided into following types:

• Solution
• Colloids
• Suspensions
##### Solution

The solution is defined as the homogeneous mixture of two or more than two substances that can be formed either by mixing suitable solid in the liquid or by the liquid in liquid.

Solution = solute + solvent
Solute: It is the component of a solution, which gets dissolved into other substance to form a solution.
Solvent: It is the substance, which dissolves solute to form a solution.
Water: It is a universal solvent that has the capacity of dissolving many substances like common salts, copper sulphate, sugar, etc.
Alcohol: It found in the form of spirit and can dissolve resin and iodine.
Petrol and kerosene: It dissolves ghee, grease, oil, fat, etc and is used for removing clothes stain.
Ether: It is an organic solvent that can dissolve fat, oil, resin, etc.

##### Colloids

Colloid is a homogeneous mixture in which the diameter of particles of components ranges in between that of particles of a solution and suspension, i.e. a particle’s size ranges from 10-7 cm to 10-5 cm. The colloidal solution of liquid in liquid is called emulsion. Some of the examples of colloids are blood, milk, gum, wax, etc.

##### Suspensions

The suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which the diameter of the particle is 10-5 cm or larger. Their particles are visible under a simple microscopic as well as to the naked eyes. Some of the examples of suspensions are sand water, muddy water, smoke in air, etc.

##### Things to remember
• A mixture is defined as a mass obtained by mixing up two or more chemically non-reactive substances in any proportion by weight.
• A homogeneous mixture is defined as a mass in which the particles of the components of the mixture are equally distributed.
• A heterogeneous mixture is defined as a mass in which the particles of components of the mixture are not equally distributed.
• Solution is defined as the homogeneous mixture of two or more than two substances that can be formed either by mixing suitable solid in liquid or by liquid in liquid.
• Colloid is a homogeneous mixture in which the diameter of particles of components ranges in between that of particles of a solution and suspension.
• Suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which the diameter of the particle is 10-5 cm or larger.
• It includes every relationship which established among the people.
• There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
• It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
• common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
##### The science of macaroni salad: What's in a mixture? - Josh Kurz
1. Homogeneous mixture: The mixture in which components of the mixture are mixed uniformly with each other is called homogeneous mixture. For example: salt solution, sugar solution etc.
2. Heterogeneous mixture: The mixture in which components of the mixture are not mixed uniformly with each other is called a heterogeneous mixture. For example: muddy water, milk, smoke etc.
Mixtures are of three types on the basis of size of particles, they are:
1. Solution
2. Colloids
3. Suspension
1. Solution: Homogeneous mixture of two or more substance is called solution. In solution, the particles are of 10-7 cm or smaller in size. Example: sugar solution, salt solution
2. Colloids: If the particles in a homogeneous mixture are 10-7 to 10-5 cm in size, such mixture is known as colloids. This state falls in between solution and colloids.
3. Suspension: If the size of the particles is 10-5 cm or bigger in a heterogeneous mixture, it is known as suspension.
When solid is heated, its molecule gain more energy and start to vibrate vigorously. On heating solvent, the molecules of liquid gain more energy and start moving vigorously, so that, intermolecular space increases. When the intermolecular space increases, then the dissolving capacity also increases. Thus, the solubility of a substance increases on heating.
If the solute particular are converted into powder, then the surface area of solute increases. It makes the molecule of solvent come in contact with molecules of solute at faster rate and it dissolves quickly.

Solute is defined as the substance which gets dissolved and is present in smaller proportion is called the solute. Example: In sugar solution, sugar is solute.

Solvent is defined as the substance which dissolves the solute and is present in larger proportion is called solvent. Example: In salt solution, water is a solvent.

Here, Weight of solute(W1) = 4.1gm.
Weight of solvent(W2) = 2.5 gm.
Solubility at 20$^0$C(s) = ?

We know that,

Solubility (S) = $\frac{Weight\;of\;solute (W1) }{Weight\;of\;solvent (W2)}$ $\times$ 100
= $\frac{4.1}{2.5}$ $\times$ 100 = 164

Therefore , the solubility of sugar at 20$^0$C is 164 .

Here,
Weight of solute (W1) = 1KG = 1000gm
Solute of salt at 30$^0$C (S) = 100
Weight of solvent (W2) = ?

We know that,

Solubility(s) = $\frac{Weight\;of\;solute}{Weight\;of\;solvent}$ $\times$ 100
or, 100 = $\frac{100}{W2}$ $\times$ 100

or, W2 = $\frac{1000 \times 100}{1}$
= 10000g.

Therefore, the weight of water in the saturated solution = 10000g.

Here,
Weight of saturated solution(w) = 70gm
Weight of solute(W1) = 15gm

Weight of solvent (w2) = Weight of saturated solution - Wt. of solute

= 70-15 = 55

Solubility(S) = ?

We know that,
Solubility(S) = $\frac{weight\;of\;soluten}{weight\;of\;solvent}$ $\times$ 100

= $\frac{15}{55}$ $\times$ 100 = 27.27

Therefore, the solubility of sodium nitrate at 30$^0$C is 27.27

According to the statement :
At 30 $^0$C , 95 f of NaNO3 form 195 g of saturated solution
At 10 $^0$C, 30 g of NaNO3, form 130 g of saturated solution

The difference in the weight of solution is : 195 - 130 = 65g

It shows that

$\therefore$ 195 g of saturated solution is cooled from 30 $^0$C to 10 $^0$C
it seperates $\frac{65}{195}$g of NaNO3

$\therefore$ 15 g of saturated solution is when cooled from 30 $^0$C to 10 $^0$C

it seperates $\frac{65}{195}$ $\times$ 15g of NaNO3 = 5g

Thus, 5g sodium nitrate is seperated by cooling the solution.

The solution in which more amount of solute can dissolve in given solvent at given temperature.