Bacteria and Fungi

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Overview

Bacteria are single celled microorganisms. They are simple, primitive and microscopic prokaryotic organisms. Fungi are non- green organisms. They cannot prepare their own food so they are known as heterotrophs. This note provides information about bacteria and fungi with its general characteristics, harmful effects, disease caused by it and control measures.

Bacteria and Fungi

Bacteria

Fig: Bacteria
Fig: Bacteria

Bacteria are single celled microorganisms. They are simple, primitive and microscopic prokaryotic organisms. It was first discovered by Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek in 1676. At first, it was thought as animals. Later it was named as bacterium by Ehrenberg in 1829. Similarly, Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch found that some diseases like tuberculosis, cholera in man and anthrax in cattle is caused by bacteria. The study of bacteria is called bacteriology. We cannot see bacteria through our naked eyes it can be seen only by using a microscope. The shape and size of bacteria usually remain constant. But some bacteria can change their shape and size with the change in the environment which are known as polymorphic. Bacteria are of different size like some of them are spherical, rod-shaped, helical and filamentous. Some of the examples of bacteria are monococcus, monobacillus, spirilla,thioturix etc. The locomotion organ of bacteria is flagella.They can live in the soil, in the ocean, and inside the human gut. The cell structure is simpler than that of other organisms as there are no nucleus or membrane bound organelles.

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General Characteristics

  • They have an autotrophic and heterotrophic mode of nutrition.
  • Flagella is present as locomotion organ.
  • The reserve food materials in them are glycogen and lipids
  • They are made of the prokaryotic cell.
  • Reproduction takes place through binary fission.

Importance

  • Some bacteria like rhizobium converts atmospheric nitrogen into nitrate.
  • Bacteria convert dead and decaying organic matter into useful substances like nitrites and ammonia.
  • Many medicines, antibiotics, antibodies, antiserum, and vaccines are produced by using various types of bacteria like Bacillus brevis, Bacillus subtilis etc.
  • Many types of bacteria are used in dairies like Lactobacilli, Acidophilus etc.
  • Micrococcusbacteria helps in curing and ripening of tea and tobacco leaves.

Disadvantages of Bacteria

  • Many diseases are caused by bacteria like Diplococcus pneumoniae causes pneumonia, Vibrio comma causes asiatic cholera, Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes tuberculosis.
  • Some bacteria like Pseudomonas decreases the fertility of the soil.
  • Some bacteria spoil the foods in summer season like Clostridium botulinum.
  • Some bacteria causes plant diseases like citrus canker by Xanthomonas citiri, ring rot potato by Corynebacterium sepedonicum.

Control Measures of Bacterial Diseases.

  • Only those plant should be used that is not affected by bacteria.
  • Anti- bacterial medicines should be used.
  • Those people who are affected by the bacterial diseases should use medicines as prescribed by the doctor.
  • Personal hygiene should be maintained.

Fungi

 

Fungi
Fungi

Fungi are non- green organisms. They cannot prepare their own food so they are known as heterotrophs. They grow in dark, dim or diffuse light. Their body is not differentiated into root, stem, and leaves. The lead parasitic, saprophytic or symbiotic mode of nutrition. The study of fungi is called mycology. They are found in leather goods,wood,clothes, preserved pickles etc where organic matter is present. They reproduce both by vegetative, sexual and asexual reproduction. The vegetative body of fungi is thallus which consists of long, branched filaments called hyphae. The mass of hyphae is called mycelium.

fig: Mushroom
fig: Mushroom

Importance of Fungi

  • Many members of fungi produce antibiotics. For example,fungi like Penicillium produce antibiotics as penicillin.
  • Different species of fungi are used in various types of industries like Aspergillus and Penicillium are used in cheese industry, Saccharomyces cerevisiae in baking industry etc.
  • Fungi like mushroom are used as food which contains important vitamins and minerals.
  • The decompose dead and decayed organisms which helps to increase the fertility of the soil.
  • Several fungi are used in the commercial production of various organic acids like citric acid, lactic acid etc.

Harmful Activities of Fungi

  • It causes plant diseases like brown rust, early blight of potato etc.
  • Fungi like Alternaria, Penicillium etc cause destructive of wool, cotton, rayon etc.
  • Fungi like Rhizopus, mucor etc makes food poisonous.
  • The rotting of food is caused by fungi like Yeast, Mucor etc.
  • Many species of fungi spoils dairy product like Aspergillus, Penicillium etc

Control Measures of Fungi

  • Fungi can be destroyed by using the fungicide.
  • Fungi can also be reduced by using sugar.
  • Different types of foods like milk, fruits, cooked food, meat etc should be stored in cold places or refrigerators.
  • Personal hygiene should be maintained to remove fungus from our body.
  • Awareness programs should be created about fungi.
Things to remember
  • Bacteria  was first discovered by Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek in 1676. 
  •  The locomotion organ of bacteria is flagella.
  • Some bacteria like rhizobium converts atmospheric nitrogen into nitrate.
  • Bacteria convert dead and decaying organic matter into useful substances like nitrites and ammonia.
  • Many members of fungi produce antibiotics. For example,fungi like Penicillium produce antibiotics as penicillin.
  • Several fungi are used in the commercial production of various organic acids like citric acid, lactic acid etc.
  • Fungi like Rhizopus, mucor etc makes food poisonous.
  • Fungi can be destroyed by using the fungicide.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
Videos for Bacteria and Fungi
Importance of bacteria
Importance of Fungi
Questions and Answers
Bacteria are single celled microorganisms.
Bacteria was first discovered by Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek in 1676.
The study of bacteria is called bacteriology.
Those bacteria which can change their shape and size with the change in environment is called polymorphic bacteria.
Any two examples of bacteria are monococcu and monobacillus.
The locomotory organ of bacteria is flagella.
Bacteria like Pseudomonas decreases the fertility of the soil.
Fungi are called heterotrophs because they cannot prepare their own food.
The mass of hyphae is called mycellium.
Fungi can be destroyed by using fungicides.
The vegetative body of fungi is thallus which consists of long, branched filaments called hyphae.
Any two examples of fungi are penicillium and mushroom.
The study of fungi is called mycology.

Any four general characteristics of bacteria are as follows,

  • They have an autotrophic and heterotrophic mode of nutrition.
  • Flagella is present as locomotion organ.
  • The reserve food materials in them are glycogen and lipids
  • They are made of the prokaryotic cell.

Some of the harmful activities of fungi are as follows,

  • It causes plant diseases like brown rust, early blight of potato etc.
  • Fungi like Alternaria, Penicillium etc cause destructive of wool, cotton, rayon etc.
  • Fungi like Rhizopus, mucor etc makes food poisonous.
  • The rotting of food is caused by fungi like Yeast, Mucor etc.
  • Many species of fungi spoils dairy product like Aspergillus, Penicillium etc

Some of the economic importance of fungi are as follows,

  • Many species of fungi produces antibiotics.
  • Fungi is also used in industries like in baking industries, brewery industries, cheese industries etc.
  • Fungi is also used as food like the mushroom.
  • Fungi is used in the production of various organic acids like citric acid, fumaric acid etc.
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