Metals

Subject: Science

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Overview

Most of the metals are solid at ordinary temperature except mercury. Most of the metals are generally hard in nature. This note gives us information about metals with their properties.
Metals

On the basis of certain basic properties, all the elements have been divided into two classes: metals and non-metals. 80% of the total elements (known till now) are metals. Metals are the good conductor of heat and electricity, they are malleable and ductile. Most of the metals are found in combined state.Metals are strong and are useful for making tools, buildings, bridges and other structures where strength is important. The most abundant metal on the earth is iron.The tallest free-standing structures in the world are made of metals, primarily the alloy steel. They include the Dubai skyscraper Burj Kalifa, the Tokyo television tower Skytree, and the Shanghai Tower skyscraper. Some of the examples of metals are copper, gold, iron, aluminium, etc.

Properties of metals

Physical properties

  • State: Most of the metals are solid at ordinary temperature except mercury.
  • Hardness: Most of the metals are generally hard in nature.
  • Lustre: Metals possess metallic lustre when they are freshly cut.
  • Density: Metals have relatively high densities except lithium, sodium and potassium.
  • Malleability: Metals can be beaten into a thin plate, such property is called malleability.
  • Ductility: The property of metal being made into wires is called ductility and the metal is called ductile.
  • Conductivity: Metals are generally good conductors of heat and electricity.
  • Melting and boiling point of metal: The melting and boiling point of metals are generally high due to their high density and hardness.
  • Electric charge: Metals are electropositive elements which give cations when ionized. In aqueous solutions, metallic salts undergo ionization and produce metallic ions.

Chemical properties

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  • Reaction with oxygen: When metal is treated with oxygen on heating they react together to give basic oxides.
    4Na + O2→ 2Na2O
  • Reaction with Hydrogen: Metals like sodium, potassium, and calcium burn in hydrogen and forms corresponding halides.
    2Na + H2→ 2NaH (sodium hydride)
    2K + H2→ 2KH (potassium hydride)
  • Reaction with acids: Most of the reactive metals like sodium, potassium and calcium react with dilute acid to form salts and hydrogen gas.
    Zn + 2HCl→ ZnCl2 + H2
Things to remember
  • Most of the metals are solid at ordinary temperature except mercury.
  • Most of the metals are generally hard in nature.
  • Metals possess metallic luster when they are freshly cut.
  • Metals have relatively high densities except lithium, sodium and potassium.
  • When metal are treated with oxygen on heating they react together to give basic oxides.
  • Metals like sodium, potassium, and calcium burn in hydrogen and forms corresponding halides.
  • Most of the reactive metals like sodium, potassium and calcium react with dilute acid to form salts and hydrogen gas.
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Videos for Metals
Chemical Properties Of Metals
Chemical Properties of Metals
Metals - Structure and Properties
Questions and Answers
Metals are those electropositive elements which are good conductor of heat and electricity. For example, gold, platinum, iron, etc.
Non-metals are those electropositive elements which are bad conductor of heat and electricity. For example, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, iodine, etc.
The physical properties of metals are: (i) Metals are good conductor of heat and electricity. (ii) They are ductile in nature. (iii) They can be converted into thin sheet after hammering. Thus, we can say that they are malleable in nature.

The melting point and boiling point of silver are 960 degree C and 1955 degree C respectively.

The property of metal being made into wires is called ductility.
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