Respiratory and Excretory System

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Overview

A human respiratory system is a group of the organ that is responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide. Similarly, respiration is the removal of waste product from our body. This note provides information about the respiratory system and excretory system of humans.

Respiratory and Excretory System

Respiratory System

Respiratory system
Respiratory system

A human respiratory system is a group of the organ that is responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide. A large amount of energy is produced from the reaction between food and oxygen. This energy is used to perform various life activities. The respiratory system of the human consists of various parts. They are nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea or windpipe and lungs. The main respiratory organ is lungs.The respiratory system also helps the body maintain homeostasis or balance among the many elements of the body’s internal environment.The respiratory system helps the body maintain homeostasis or balance body’s internal environment. The short information about the parts of respiratory system is given below,

  1. Nose: It is the primary outermost organ of respiratory system through which air enters and comes out. It consists of cilia and mucus that prevents bacteria and dust particles from entering inside the body. When air passes through the nose, the air is moistened and humidified. The nose is divided into two nasal cavities by the nasal septum.
  2. Pharynx: It is the tubular structure that extends from the mouth to larynx. It allows passage for both food and air. At the end of the pharynx, there is flap-like cartilage structure called epiglottis, that prevents food from entering the lungs. Pharynx consists of three parts, upper part nasopharynx, middle part oropharynx and lower part laryngopharynx which is located below the epiglottis.
  3. Larynx: It is also known as the voice box. When air enters through the pharynx, it passes through the larynx. It is made of hyoid bone and cartilage that helps regulate the flow of air. It connects laryngopharynx with the trachea. Larynx consists of two foods which are knowns as vocal chords.The pitch and volume of sounds can be controlled by modifying the tension and speed of the vocal folds.
  4. Trachea or windpipe: It allows the passage of air into the lungs. The trachea is made of c-shaped ringed cartilage that divides into the right and left bronchus. The right main bronchus is shorter and wider than the left main bronchus. The bronchus when enter or joins with the lungs, it divides into the smaller tube called bronchioles. These bronchioles further divide into tiny grape-like sacs which are known as alveoli. They are very thin where diffusion takes place. They are supplied with blood capillaries. The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place in the alveoli.The average adult has about 600 million alveoli in lungs.
  5. Lungs: This is the most important part of respiratory system. They are located inside the thorax on the left and right sides. They are surrounded by a membrane that provides them with enough space to expand when they fill up with air. The left lung is smaller in size then right lung. The left lung has only two lobes and right lung has three lobes. The lungs consist of millions of small air sacs called alveoli where gaseous exchange takes place.

Process of respiration

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When we take in air, the lungs expand and the size of the chest increases. The chest muscles and the diaphragm when return to its original position, the size of the chest decreases. During this condition, the air comes out of the lungs. The healthy man breathes 18 - 20 times in a minute. The rate of breathing increases during hard work, running, excitement, fear etc.
The atmospheric oxygen passes through nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea and last to lungs where gaseous exchange takes place. The oxygen when reaches the lungs it diffuses into the blood vessels. The carbon dioxide in blood vessels comes out into the lungs. The oxygenated blood reaches into the heart. With the help of different nerve, the heart pumps out blood into the different parts of the body. The oxygen then reacts with the food and a large amount of energy is produced which is utilized to perform life activities by the various cells, tissues and organs. During the reaction between oxygen and food, energy along with water and carbon dioxide is also produced. The carbon dioxide thus formed reaches the heart and to the lungs through different nerves and blood vessels.

 

Importance of Respiratory System

  • It fulfils the necessity of oxygen in our body.
  • It helps to remove carbon dioxide from our body.
  • Without oxygen, our body cannot perform life activities.
  • The neuron cannot transfer electrochemical message in the absence of the oxygen.

Excretory System

Excretory System
Excretory System

Our body cannot perform life activities without food. Food provides us energy. No living organisms can live without food. Food not only provides energy but it also creates unnecessary things and materials which are known as a waste product. This waste product needs to get removed from our body. Various parts of our body organ take part to remove this waste product from our body like kidneys, skin, urinary bladders, ureter, liver, etc. The main function of an excretory system is to remove waste from the body.
The skin performs excretion through sweat glands. These glands produce sweat that contains salt, excess oils, water, and other unnecessary substances. Similarly, nose and mouth also help to remove waste product like saliva, cough etc. Large intestine also helps in the removal of unwanted food materials. Similarly, lungs help to remove waste gases like carbon dioxide and water. The liver plays a vital role in keeping our body clean. Harmful poisons and chemicals that are either produced in the body or consumed are broken down and detoxified by the liver.
The main excretory product is urine, it removes nitrogenous compounds from our body. It contains a pair of kidneys, urinary bladder,ureter, urethra etc.Kidneys are bean-shaped organs of a reddish brown color that are found in the sides of the vertebral column. It filters waste from the blood. Each kidney contains millions of nephron which help to filter nitrogenous substances from the blood.

Importance of Excretory System

  • It helps to remove wastes produced by homeostasis.
  • Urea and nitrogen which are harmful to our body are removed in the form of urine.
  • Various waste materials are produced from the metabolic activities in our body. These waste products are removed from various organs of our body.
  • The kidney plays an important role in the removal of the waste product. It removes the waste product in the form of urine and filters the unwanted substance.
Things to remember
  • A human respiratory system is a group of the organ that is responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide.
  • The main respiratory organ is lungs.
  • The respiratory system consists of nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea and lungs.
  • Larynx is also known as the voice box.
  • Without oxygen, our body cannot perform life activities.
  •  The main function of the excretory system is to remove waste from the body.
  • Each kidney contains millions of nephron which help to filter nitrogenous substances from the blood.

 

  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
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Questions and Answers
A human respiratory system is a group of the organ that is responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide.
Any two organs of respiratory system are lungs and larynx.
The main respiratory organ is lungs.
Skin performs excretion through sweat glands.
The main excretory organ is kidneys.
Any two organs of excretory systems are ureter and urethra.
The main function of an excretory system is to remove waste from the body.
Each kidney conatins about millions of nephron.
Any one importance of excretory system is that it helps to remove wastes produced by homeostasis.

The different types of organ involved in the respiration are as follows,

  • Nose
  • Pharynx
  • Larynx
  • Trachea or windpipe
  • Lungs

The importance of respiratory system are as follows,

  • It fulfils the necessity of oxygen in our body.
  • It helps to remove carbon dioxide from our body.
  • Without oxygen, our body cannot perform life activities.
  • The neuron cannot transfer electrochemical message in the absence of the oxygen.

The importance of excretory system are as follows,

  • It helps to remove wastes produced by homeostasis.
  • Urea and nitrogen which are harmful to our body are removed in the form of urine.
  • Various waste materials are produced from the metabolic activities in our body. These waste products are removed from various organs of our body.
  • The kidney plays an important role in the removal of the waste product. It removes the waste product in the form of urine and filters the unwanted substance.
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