Carolos Linnaeus divided the world of living organisms into two kingdoms: animal kingdom and plant kingdom . There are millions of species of plants. They vary from small size to a large size. On the basis of presence or absence of flowers, all the plants are divided into two major sub-kingdoms: cryptogams and phanerogams.
They are promitive and somplest plants without flowers. They are On the basis of appearance and stage of development, cryptogams are divided into three divisions. They are: Thallophyta, bryophyta and pteridophyta.
They are the most primitive and the simplest plants. They may be multicellular or multicellular. They possess following characteristics:
Thallophyta is divided into two sub-divisions. They are algae and fungi.
Algae are the green thallophytes which have the following characteristics:
Examples: spirogyra, sea-weeds, volvox, etc.
Fungi include non-green plants and have following characteristics:
Examples: mushroom, mucor, yeast, ring worm etc.
Bryophyta have the following characteristics:
Examples: moss, liverworts etc.
Pteridophyta are seedless vascular plants . They are seedless vascular plants and have the following characteristics:
Examples: fern, horsetail, paniamala etc.
|i) Algae are autotrophic.||i) Fungi are heterotrophic.|
|ii) The cell wall is made up of cellulose.||ii) The cell wall or hyphae wall is of fungal cellulose or chitin.|
|iii) They reproduce both by sexually and asexually.||iii) Reproduction is by formation of spores and sexual method.|
|It falls on bryophyta division.||It falls on pteridophyta division.|
|It does not contain xylem and phloem tissues.||It contains xylem and phloem tissues.|
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