Indicators of Developments

Subject: Enviroment Population and Health

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Overview

Development indicators show the progress that has been made in a particular area, such as health education or gender equality . Indicators of development helps to find out progress of the country.
Indicators of Developments

Development indicators show the progress that has been made in a particular area, such as health education or gender equality . Indicators of development help to find out the progress of a country . According to UNDP, there are three essentials of development , which include the ability to lead a long and healthy life , to acquire knowledge and , to have a decent standard of life. When people fulfill their basic need that is their first decision of the development of the country . After their basic need all the people they think about the things like security, love , self-respect etc. The fulfillment of this types of needs is said to an indicator of development . There different types of indicators of development . They are as followed :

Quality of life

The quality of life is the life where there is the fulfillment of every basic need of the people . In the world, every person or every people they need their perfect life where they can have the things which they need or want . Always the need and the demand of the people goes on increasing . No one is happy with their life .When rich people are not satisfied with their life , the poor people who are passing through the hardship of the life may be living with smile and hopes . So ,the quality of life is a complete related term used for comfort which has both physical , social , economical and psychological of human beings, Following are the things people should get to improve the quality of life or to developed the nation or society :

Abroad Studies Opportunities
  • Every individual should have access to quality education.
  • People should get peace and security for living individual and social life in a decent way.
  • Individual should get the facility of exercise and rest.
  • The family should get an opportunity to generate income source of livelihood.

Basic Need Oriented Approach

Fulfillment of basic need was considered as one of the indicators of economic development since from the 1970s. Comparison of quality of life is basic need approach. According to the basic needs of Nepal Government approach , basic need include the fulfillment of the following things :

  • food
  • clothes
  • housing
  • education
  • health
  • employment
  • medicine
  • fresh air

Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI)

The PQLI was introduced by the sociologist ,Morris D Morris on 1970 AD. The rank of physical quality of life index is based on the following indicators: a. Under 5 mortality

b. Life expectancy at birth

c. Literacy

PQLI is a means to measure the quality of life of the people living together in the given place or country. The physical quality of life index ranges from zero to 100 . The higher the value is found the more a country is considered with people of the high quality of life . The physical quality of life index focuses on providing health , education , and social security .

Human Development Index

Human development is index approach is used by UNDP. The concept of Human Development Index was developed in 1990 AD by Pakistani economist Dr. Mahbub UIHaq and Indian economistDr. Amartya San. Following are the indicators of the indicators of the index:

  • Education
  • Income
  • Life expectancy at birth

An index consists of the base of those three indicators. The index ranges from zero to one. Zero show the lowest level of quality of life and highest and optimum level is represented by 1. The country with low HID score called the country with the poor quality of life . According to recent provision of new methodology the HID is categorized into four level such as:

Level of Human Development HID Score
Very High Human Development 0.781-1.00
High Human Development 0.698-0.780
Medium Human Development 0.520-0.697
Low Human Development 0.00-0.510

From 1990AD the UNDP has been continuously publishing annual HDI report. During 2006 AD Nepal attained 138 ranks with the score of 0.527. Likewise, on 2011 AD Nepal was placed on 157 ranks with the score of 0.4 58 out the 187 countries and again in 2013 AD 157 position with the score of 0.463 amongst the 185 countries. The status of Nepal in HID is given by the table below :

Table : The HID Status of Nepal , 2004-2015 AD

Year Rank Score
2004 140th 0.504
2006 138th 0.527
2011 157th 0.458
2013 157th 0.463
2015 145th 0.548

Here the table which shows the HID of SAARC countries:

Table : Human Development Index of SAARC Countries , 2013 and 2015 AD


HDI Rank
Country
HDI Score
2013 2015 2013 2015
92nd 73rd Sir Lanka 0.751 0.757
104th 104th Maldives 0.688 0.706
136th 130th India 0.554 0.609
140th 132nd Bhutan 0.538 0.605
146th 142nd Bangladesh 0.515 0.570
146th 147th Pakistan 0.515 0.538
157th 145th Nepal 0.463 0.548
175th 171st Afghanistan 0.374 0.465

For the top ten HDI Countries for the year of 2013 AD are described by the following table:

Table : Human Development Index of the top 10 Countries in the World, 2015 AD.

SN HID Rank Countries HID Score
1 1st Norway 0.944
2 2nd Australia 0.935
3 3rd switzerland 0.930
4 4th Denmark 0.323
5 5th Neherlands 0.922
6 6th Germany 0.916
7 7th Ireland 0.916
8 8th USA 0.915
9 9th Canada 0.913
10 10th New Zealand 0.913

Table : Human Development Index of the lowest 10 countries in the world , 2015 AD.

SN Rank Country HDI Score
1 179th Mali 0.419
2 180th Mozambique 0.416
3 181th Sierra Leone 0.413
4 182th Guinea 0.411
5 183th Burkina Faso 0.402
6 184th Burundi 0.400
7 185th Chad 0.392
8 186th Eritrea 0.391
9 187th Central African Republica 0.350
10 188th Niger 0.348

Following things should be given to maintaining the quality of life:

  • Saving
  • Balanced diet
  • Gender equality
  • Proper birth spacing etc.

Happiness : The overall satisfaction of the life is known as happiness. In the world, if all people will be happy then whole nation will be happy. Happiness is the main means of development because if a country will develop then people they can get whatever they need or want. Happiness can be obtained through the fulfilment of basic need ,social security ,individual and family satisfaction . There are mainly seven types of domains which are considered as positive or negative infrastructure of development;

  1. Political Progress: If there will be good political progress then it will not take a time to develop a country .Due to political progress, there will equal facility and equal freedom for everyone which will bring happiness in the face of people.
  2. Economic Progress: When the condition of economic will rise up then every individual can earn money and they can increase the income which will help to increase the par capital income of a country . The money which is earned by the whole country will help to do development in the country by which again people can fulfil their need and demand.
  3. Environmental Progress:The surrounding where we live is called environment . The environment is the place where we can find both good and bad things . All land , water ,forest ,air and pollution ,noise and transportation come under the environment .
  4. Social Progress: All human are a social animal . They need society to live .The society such as social discrimination , security, divorce rate , domestic violence , social conflict and crime rate are analyzed and recorded in a systematic manner.
  5. Physical Progress: If a people will be physically or mentally fit or fine then will be happy. The conditions of different types of disabilities ,obesity, and complicated degenerative diseases are analyzed.
  6. Workplace Efficiency: If all the people they get job or employment then there will be no problem of fulfilling their basic need but when there will be lack of work then there will be lack of money people they started to do robbery, kill people and due to which the whole country will face problem which will upset people.
  7. Mental Progress: The use of medicine or to reduce mental stress is analyzed.

Table : Happiness Status of the SAARC Countries, 2016 AD.

Rank Countries Score
84th Bhutan 5.196
92nd Pakistan 5.132
107th Nepal 4.793
110th Bangladesh 4.643
117th Srilanka 4.415
118th India 4.404
154th Afgianistan 3.360
------ Maldives -------

Table : Distribution of Municipalities according to their classification, 2014 AD

SN Category Number
1 Metropolis 1
2 Sub- metropolis 11
3 Municipality 118
4 Total mUNICIPALITIES 130

Things to remember
  • . According to UNDP there are three essentials of development , which include the ability to lead a long and healthy life , to acquire knowledge and , to have a decent standard of life.
  • The overall satisfaction of the life is known as happiness.
  • The basic needs oriented approach is one of the major approaches in the measurement of quality of life.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
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Questions and Answers
The life which is full of all the facility is known as quality of life .
Sustainable development is needed for long term conservation of environmental resource.
Urbanization is the most terrible factor which destrys the natural beauty.
The full form of HID is Human Development Index.
Some other factores that acquire quality of life are as folloed : saving , balance diet , gender equality , small family size etc.
Happiness can be define as the overall enjoyment of life as -a-whole .
Altogether there are 271 municipalities are there in Nepal .
Ater , 1990 AD the concept of human resource as an infrastructure of development.
People who enganged in production ralated works are called skill manpower .

Impacts of low quality of life are as follows :

  • Difficulty to get employment opportunities .
  • Lack of quality education .
  • Unable to fulfill the basic needs .
  • Suffering from diseases due to ill health .

Education means knowledge . Education provides the necessary skills and knowledge for life . Educated people will always have opportunities for employment anywhere. The skilled and educated person will be able to fulfill the need of the people or their family easily . An educated person can use easily the available modernresources and facilities to ,to make life happy . Therefore , education helps to improve the living standards of the family as well as individual.

The importance of quality of life are the following :

  • Opportunity for income generation activities and employment .
  • Facilities for maternal and child welfare.
  • Fulfillment of basic needs such as food , clothing and housing.
  • Attainment of quality education.

The major elements of quality of life are as follows :

  • Nutrition food : For the physical , intellectual and mental development of the family members , balanced diet is necessary . The quality of life will become high only if we can provide nutritious food to all members of the family .
  • the small size of the Family : The size of the familyaffects the quality of life . If the size of the family is small , it is easy to fulfill the needs of the family members . This is helpful to raise the quality of life .
  • Sound health : A healthy person can be involved in different activities for the welfare of the family . Thus, for the quality of life , the health status of the individual should be good.
  • Sanitation:Sanitation of the surroundings always helps to feel mentally sound and active . As a result , the standardof living will be meaningful.
  • Income of the family ; The quality of life is determined by the economic situation of the family . If the income of the family is high , there is no doubt , that the living standard is high.
  • Quality education :The quality of educationprovides a person knowledge , skill and attitudes necessary for life . Education and skilled manpower can involve in the prestgiousjob and can earn more amount of money . Therefore , education is necessary for quality of life .
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