Air, Water, Land, Forest Resource, Wildlife and Minerals
Natural resources are very large in their types and importance. People use natural resources for their benefits. Each natural resource has its own importance.
Air is colorless, order less, and tasteless mixture of gases found in the earth's atmosphere. It forms a layer on the earth above land and water surface. It comprises 78 % nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.03% carbon dioxide, 0.1% other 4 gases and water vapor.
The importance of air are given below:
- It helps to balance the water cycle.
- The carbon dioxide is used by the plants to prepare their food during photosynthesis process.
- The ozone layer of the atmosphere helps to the life of the earth by preventing the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun that enters into the earth.
- Air is also used for energy production. The air is used to produce energy in Kagbeni of Mustang district.
It covers about seventy one percent of the earth's surface. Water is used use for drinking and other human activities, growing crops, and most in industrial used. In Nepal, people have the severe problem of drinking water practically in the urban areas. Sources of water is degrading where as the demand of water is increasing for the growing population.
The importance of water is given below:
- Live stock management
- Irrigation facility
- Drinking process
- Domestic purposes
It is essential natural resource. The Geo- physical structure of the country varies according to the nature of rock and its structure. Soil is formed by weathering of rock and mixing of dead plants and animals. The formation of soil depends upon the climate, topography, nature of rock and biological changes. Due to this reason, soil formation may take from a few years to hundreds of years according to place.
The land feature of Nepal can be summarized as given below:
- Mountain region: It lies in the northern part of Nepal. It occupies about thirty five percent of the total land of our country. It consists of the soil formed from sedimentary rock and it is not fully matured enough to cultivate crops. Sandy loam and silty soil are found in this region. Therefore, this region is less fertile. Plants like potatoes and barely are suitable to grow in this type of soil.
- Hilly region : It lies between the mountain and terai region and occupies forty two percent of the total land. The soil is formed by igneous rock and sedimentary rock. The soil consists of sand and pebbles. So, it is not highly suitable for agricultural production. Silt loam soil and loam types of soil are found in this region. Soil erosion is very high due to the supply land.
- Terai region : The structure of the land is plain in this region. It lies at the southern part of Nepal and occupies twenty three percent of the total land. The soil is alluvial, soil is fertile. Therefore, terai region is also known as the granary of Nepal.
The importance of soil is given below:
- It gives shelter to many living creatures. House is made on land.
- Land is the sources of food, grains and other basic needs. We grow crops and get food from them.
- It is also the source of many resource. Major minerals are achieved from land which can be used for various purposes.
- Wet land ecosystem of the land helps to preserve the extinct plants and animals.
Nepal has board variation of altitude from place. This is the reason that Nepal has been a land of different ecosystem and water ships. Because of the climate and topographical condition, there are diverse types of forest in our country. On the basis of physical features, climate, soil and local surrounding.
Forests can be divided into various types or groups, they are given below:
- Tropical forest : Tropical forest is in the terai belt of Nepal up to an altitude of 1000 meters from the sea level. In this belt, there is high temperature and heavy rain fall. This forest is evergreen forest and has high temperature. Sal, Sisoo, Khayar, Chap, Palas, Katus, etc. are some of the species found in this belt. Several plants useful for medicine and some are useful for painting. A variety of flowering plants have equally beautiful environment of tropical forest of Nepal. In different places of this area, thick grassy shrubs are also found.
- Sub- tropical forest :This forest extends from 1200 m to 2000 m in the west and 1000 m to 1700 m in the east. It mainly includes the forest of southern hills of Mahabharata range and upper parts of the churia hills. Sub- tropical forest is extended in the form of belt from eastern to western Nepal. The major forest flora of this region also consist of temperate forest flora like Katus, Simal, Bamboo, Kafal and the upper part of this region also consists of temperate forest flora like Pine and Rhododendron.
- Temperate forest: Temperate forest is found at an altitude of 1, 700 m to 3,00 m in east and at an altitude of 2000m to 3,100 m in the west. The forest is divided into two parts. Lower temperate forest (2000 to 2,700) m in the east and (1, 700 to 2,400) m in the east. Upper temperate forest (2,700 to 3,100 ) m in east and (2,400 to 3000) m meter in the east. This type of forest is extended from the east to west hill part of Mahabharata range.
- Alpine forest : Alpine forest extends above the temperate region in the northern part of Nepal. It is also divided into lower alpine zone and upper zone. The lower alpine zone extends from 3000 to 4200 m in the western part of Nepal and up to 3000 m in the eastern Nepal. Dhupi, Salla, varieties of rhododendron and other bushy plants are the main vegetation of this region. In this region, trees are found up to a certain altitude which is also known as tree line. Around 4000 m altitude is considered as tree line in Nepal. The vegetation comprises lichen, grasses and mosses, etc.
Importance of forest is given below:
- Forest is the shelter of wild birds and animals.
- It includes rainfall and protects the natural environment.
- It contributes in the conservation of soil, wildlife and water sources, etc.
- Fruits, colors, medicinal herbs, etc. are found in the forest which adds the natural beauty.
The uncultivated plants and non- domesticated animal resources are called wildlife. Nepal is rich is rich in its biodiversity. According to project profile 1995, Nepal has got 181 species of mammals, 844 species of birds, 6356 species of butterflies, 5000 species of insects and 185 species of fishes. Reptiles like golden monitor lizard, gharal, and Asiatic rock python are also found in Nepal.
The importance of wildlife is given below:
- Many wildlife species provide food. In some parts of the world insects are eaten as source of protein.
- Wildlife animals are a source of beauty, joy and recreational pleasure for large number of people.
- Wildlife helps in the development of tourism industry.
- People get meat, eggs, milk, milk products like cheese butter, cream, etc.
The metallic or non metallic substance found on the c rust of the earth is called mineral. Mineral is an important natural resources needed in construction and decoration. Soil, coal, clay and limestone are some of the examples of non metallic minerals. Copper, aluminum, etc. are the metallic minerals. It takes thousand years to form such minerals. As they are the non renewable natural resources, special care is needed while consuming them.
The status of major of our country is given below:
- Iron ore : It is found in Phulchowk, Rammechap, Chitwan, Makwanpur, Nuwakot and Pyuthan. It is used for constructional purposes, the cheap imported from the foreign country has made the iron of Nepal expensive and ineffective.
- Mica: It is another type of minerals. It is found in Bajhang, Doti, Bhojpur, Lamjung, Nuwakot and Sindhuli.
- Copper: Copper is an important mineral used for making various types of utensils. Only three types of copper mines are running in Nepal; Wapsa, Gyazi and Okhaharbot. It is found in Bhudakhola of Tanahun district, Gorkha, Illam, Makwanpur, Nuwakot, Baitadi, Baglung and Taplejung.
- Zinc: Zinc is found in Kathmandu, Rasuwa, Nuwakot and Sindhuipalchowk.
- Limestone: Limestone is the required raw material for cement factory. Chovar hill of Kathmandu valley and Bhainse of the Makwanpur districts are the major sources of these minerals. The former is supposed to have 15.3 megatons and the later eight megatons of limestone.
The development of mineral resources to the availability of the mineral resources. Minerals are the sources of income generation.
The importance of mineral resources is given below:
- Minerals help to bloom the economy of the country. The mineral like gold, iron, and petroleum can be exported to foreign currency can be obtained.
- Minerals are used for constructional purposes. The iron rods, the utensils and some furniture are made by utilizing these natural resources.
- Minerals are used for aesthetic purpose. The minerals like gold, silver and diamond enhance the beauty of a person.
- The minerals like marble, slate and other are also used to decorate the house.