Factor Affecting Population Changes:The birth

Subject: Enviroment Population and Health

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Overview

Birth, also known as parturition, is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth new ones . It is an important component mainly related to fertility . It is the process of producing offspring . There are different factors which affect the birth like : social factors , economic factors,environmental factors etc .
Factor Affecting Population Changes:The birth

Birth

Birth, also known as parturition, is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth new ones. It is an important component mainly related to fertility. It is the process of producing offspring. In a country, if the women they are producing more babies then it means the size of the population is growing or the size of the country is changing. There are different factors which affect Birth. Like socio-cultural, environmental and economic. The factors which affect them are given below:

Economical factors:

  • Insurance: People think that their children are their old age security. Parents consider the children as the future insurance. So, the people produce more babies.
  • Poverty : In our country, more than 25% of the population is below the poverty line. Due to which people, they are facing different types of problems day by day. Because of their economic problems or poverty, they cannot use the proper instrument for family planning. So, the people they give birth to many children.
Source:cffn.ca Fig: Poverty
Source:cffn.ca
Fig: Poverty
  • Unemployment: Our country Nepal is developing the country. Due to lack of employment, they stay idle at their home and force to women to give birth to more children. So, unemployment is one of the major factors which affect birth.
  • Economic condition: All the people are different inside of the society. In the society, some people may be rich and some may be poor. The family with poor economic may have more children compared to rich people. Poor people they give birth to more children and they think that when they will big or grow up they will provide economic support to the family. They also think if they give birth to many children, they will take care of them during old age.

Social Factors

Society is the place where we learn and get different types of knowledge. Every society says something about social values, beliefs, and traditional norms. Social practices and religious values regarding fertility come under this group:

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  • The importance of Son: Our society is male dominated society. Most of the people of our society prefer the son. The people of our society force the women to give birth to many children in the want of the son. According to our culture or due to our society it is believed that only the son can fire on the funeral pyre and is believed to give his demised parents salvation. People they think if they won't have the son then their generation will stop and no one will be there to spite their culture and religion. This all due the different between girl and boy which also help to grow the population.
  • Illiteracy: Education is one of the major factors of development. If the people they are educated then it will be very easy to develop the country. In our society, there are many people who are illiterate. They don't know the different between a large family and small family. They don't know about planning and the birth spacing. Due to lack of knowledge they give more birth to many children. That is the result of more children.
  • Family Structure: Family structure is also responsible for increasing fertility. The people live in a joint family they are supposed to do early married and early conception. Childbearing couples do not have to bear a socioeconomic burden of child-rearing because their children are taken care by their other relatives within their family. The couple doesn't feel their responsibility and gives birth to many children. They do not know the means of family planning and necessity of small family.
  • Early Marriage: Early marriage one of the major factor of rapid population growth. In our country, due to social and religious customs people, they do early marriage. It is believed that to get a daughter are married before the age menarche will get them salvation. More than 40% of girls are married before the age of twenty. Doing marriage in early age is illegal. It is the longer fertility period. So , the couple who do early marriage they born more babies.
Source:www.nepalmountainnews.com Fig: Early Marriage
Source:www.nepalmountainnews.com
Fig: Early Marriage
  • Polygamy: When a man is married to more than one wife at a time, it is called polygamy. It is a social evil. It is an illegal act which is practices in our society. Due to this types of marriage, it increases the population. There will be a competition of giving births between the wives.
  • Poor status of Woman: As we know that our country Nepal is male dominated society. Still, the situation of women is not so good. The women are doing household work like cooking, washing, cleaning, rearing their children etc. Most of the women they sit in the home and do house work. So they are forced to give birth to a number of babies.

Environmental Factors:

Climate: The people living in the hot climate have the high level of fertility rate than the people who live in the cold climate. It is seen that the women in hot climate become early matured and fecund than the women in the cold climate. The number of babies is more in the hot region. Whereas the number of babies is less in a cold region. The size of the population in the hot region is growing fast in comparison to the cold region. So, the climate is considered as one of the important factor affecting the population.

Things to remember
  • Birth important component mainly related to fertility . 
  • If the women they are producing more babies then it means the size of the population is growing or the size of the country is changing.
  •  Every society says something about social values , beliefs, and traditional norms .
  •  The climate is considered as one of the important factor affecting the population .
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
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Questions and Answers

The determinants of fertility are as follows :

  • Age at marriage
  • Level of income
  • Climate
  • It is deceived if you find either daughter or son
  • Educational attainment of couple 
  • Child death rate 
  • Occupation
  • Urbanization
  • Religious beliefs 
  • Small and joint family system 
  • Health services etc.

Population study remains incomplete  without fertility or birth . It is birth that is responsible to replace the old people with young ones . So , that  the biological replacement is possible only through of people . It maintains human society . The  society which have more death then birth will face danger ofof becoming extinct . So, fertility is important to save society and human civilization.

Economic factors concern about earning or involvement in the activities that provide monitory  profit to the family . In under developed and developing countries where education and awareness level of people is low at par, more number of members in a family is taken as wealth of the family . Uneducated  people give birth to more number of children to get help in their household works , farm , land etc. So, economic  factor largely helps to increase fertility rate .

The psychological factors mean those aspects which inspire the mentality to have children . They are described below :

  • Feeling of competition : The sense of competition brings the tradition of bearing more sons and daughters among  brothers . More children given them the sense of security , so they produce more .
  •  Virility : To bear more children is considered as the virility of a man . Hence , it encourages him to produce more children .
  • Being parent is the entire goal :Couples desire to be a guardian of their child . The infecund or sterile couples are looked  with disdain. It creates the mentality to give birth .

Following are the social factors of Birth :

  • The importance of Son : Our society is male dominated society . Most of the people of our society they prefer the son . The people our society the force to women to give birth to many children in the want of the son. According to our culture or due to our society it is believed that only the son can fire on the funeral pyre and is believed to give his demised parents salvation. People they think if they won't have the son then their generation will stop no one will be there to spite their culture and religious. This all due the different between girl and boy which also help to grow the population .
  • Illiteracy : Education is one of the major factors of development . If the people they are educated then it will be very easy to develop the country very smoothly.In our society , there are many people who are illiterate . They don't know the different between a large family and small family . They don't know about planning and the birth spacing . Due to lack of knowledge they give more birth to many children .That is the result of more children .
  • Family Structure : Family structure is also responsible for increasing fertility . The people live in a joint family they are supposed to do early married and early conception .Childbearing couples do not have to bear a socioeconomic burden of child-rearing because their children are taken care by their other relatives within their family . The couple doesn't feel gives birth to many children . They do not know the means of family planning and necessity of small family .
  • Early Marriage : Early marriage one of the major factor of rapid population growth . In our country, due to social and religious customs people, they do early married . It is believed that to get a daughter are married before the age menarche will get them salvation. More than 40% of girls are married before the age of twenty . Doing marriage in early age is illegal . It is the longer fertility period . So , the couple who do early married they born more babies .
  • Polygamy : Polygamy is the types of married in which the boys they married with the number of girls . It is a social evil . It is a social evil . It is an illegal act which is practices in our society . Due to this types of marriage, it increases the population . There will be a competition of giving births between the wives .
  • Poor status of Woman : As we know that our country Nepal is male dominated society . Still, the situation of women is very backward . The women are doing household work like cooking , washing , cleaning , rearing their children etc. Most of the women they sit in the home and do house work . So they are forced to give birth to a number of babies.
The data which are already collected and complied by others (i.e. institutions, organizations, individual researcher or research groups) is called secondary sources of population data.
Any two examples of secondary sources of population data are statistical yearbooks and organizations reports.
Any two social factors that affect birth are illiteracy and early marriage.
Any two economic factors that affect birth are economic condition and poverty.
The IMR of Nepal has been recorded 46 per 1000 live birth in 2011 AD.
Factors affecting population change are birth, death and migration.
Polygamy means marrying two or more than two women or men.
People living in the place or a country with hot climate have high level fertility rate and the people residing in the cold climate are found with low fertility.
The environmental factor that affect birth is climatic conditions.
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