Menstruation and Sex and Reproductive Right

Subject: Enviroment Population and Health

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Overview

The process of flow of blood, along with unfertilized eggs through the vagina every month during their fertility period is called menstruation. Reproductive process is a natural and biological phenomenon. But, it needs to be safe, protective and pro-motive for healthy living. The means and measures adopted for safe, protective and healthy reproductive are mentioned as sex and reproductive rights.This note provide us the information with the information about menstruation and factors to be considered during menstruation and sex and reproductive health.
Menstruation and Sex and Reproductive Right

The process of flow of blood, along with unfertilized eggs through the vagina every month during their fertility period is called menstruation. This is also considered untouchable period in some communities. This process is controlled by cyclic secretion of hormones and repeats every month so it is called menstrual cycle. A menstrual cycle is of twenty eight days in an average though it varies slightly according to the health condition of females. The first day of menstruation is counted the first day of a menstrual cycle.

Menstruation is under the control of nervous system. The hypothalamus situated in the brain secrets Gonado- Trophin releasing hormone which stimulates the anterior pituitary gland for the secretion of follicle stimulating hormone and Luteinizing hormone (LH).

The follicle stimulating hormone and Luteinizing hormone stimulate the ovary cells for the formation and maturation of one follicle which consist of the ovum inside it. Besides, these hormones stimulate the secretion of Oestrogen and Progesterone in female's body. Oestrogen and progesterone help in the thickening of the inner wall of uterus or endometrium for the reception of fertilized eggs and its development. The thickening of endometrium starts immediately after the end of menstrual flow and becomes maximums during the middle of menstrual cycle. This is called proliferates. Thus, stage O estrogen and progesterone help in the formation of the wall of uterus to the thick layer of endometrium secretes a white sticky fluid until the period of mensuration and this phase is called secretary phase.

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After ovulation the egg or ovum reaches the fallopian tube. In the meantime, if sperms reach the fallopian tube through the uterus by sexual intercourse, the fusion between sperm and ovum take place. The fusion of sperm and ovum is called fertilization. If the fertilization dose not commence within seventy two hours, then the fertilized egg degenerates. Fertilization of ovum in the fallopian tube helps to live the thick layer of endometrium but in absences of fertilization due to the hormonal influence, the thick endometrium bursts and the blood and unfertilized egg comes out through the vagina. This process of flow of blood along with the unfertilized egg is referred as menstruation. After mensuration the endometrium cleans up and secretion of hormones from pituitary gland begins a new menstrual cycle.

Factors to be considered during menstruation:

Menstruation is a natural process and controlled by hormonal changes in females. However, this process is associated with many problems in them. Some females experience the problems of stomach ache, backache, and overflow of blood, giddiness and sickness during the menstruation period. Due to the physical problems, they may go also get mental tension. So, it is important to consider the following measures during menstruation.

  1. Menstruation is a natural bodily process like growth and development. If someone has her first menstruation then she must discuss the matter with her friends and seniors to get the right information and advice.
  2. During physical pain, light exercises may be appropriate instead of a complete bed rest. Drinking hot liquids and treatment by hot water filled robber bag may help to reduce pain. In case of severe pain, painkiller may also be used.
  3. Females should not be considered as untouchable during this stage. They should get nutritious diet and stay hygienically with the family.
  4. Balance diet should be taken and spicy and oily food should be avoided.
  5. The genital organs should be cleaned after urination and regular bath should be taken as far as possible.
  6. Distant traveling and heavy exercises should be avoided. More rest should be taken during this period.

Sex and Reproductive Right

Reproductive process is a natural and biological phenomenon. But, it needs to be safe, protective and pro-motive for healthy living. The means and measures adopted for safe, protective and healthy reproductive are mentioned as sex and reproductive rights.

The international conference of human rights held at Tehran in 1968 A.D. has accepted that every couple must have the right to determine their family size and child's birth gap. It indicated that reproductive right has been considered similar to human right. The international conference on population and development held at Cairo in 1994 A.D. has brought the theme of reproductive rights in an organized form.

The sex and reproductive rights as brought forward by these two conventions are given in the following points:

  1. Right to survive: Women's life should not be at risk due to pregnancy and related causes.
  2. Right to individual freedom and security:People are independent to control their sex and reproductive health and enjoy their life without any discrimination.
  3. Right to equality: All people are equal to get the services of sex and reproductive health without any discrimination.
  4. Right to secrecy: People can take the services of sex and reproductive health in a secret way. Service providers should keep the entire matter secret.
  5. Right to independent view: Everybody has right to express their own view regarding the matter of sex and reproductive health without any influence from the religious and cultural practices.
  6. Right to freedom from coercion and related to sex and reproductive health:People should have right to get rid of the problems related of sex and reproductive health.
  7. Right to use the facilities of sex and reproductive health: People can use all the available scientific tools and technology for their welfare of reproductive health.
  8. Right to health care and security: People should have right to services on the matter related to health care and security.
  9. Right to information and education: Everyone should have the right to achieve information and education on sex and reproductive health.
  10. Right to decide on birth of babies: Everyone is free to decide on whether to produce children or not and number of children.

All the concerned agencies of our society should involve actively securing the sex and reproductive rights. We are free to decide on the aspects like age to marriage, the number of children to have, the gap between the children and the ways of living happy life. We got the information on these matters from schools, homes and different media like newspaper, radios, television, etc. When we use the knowledge gained from different sources in the matter related to various aspects of sex and reproductive health, than only it influences for happy and healthy life.

Things to remember
  • The process of flow of blood, along with unfertilized eggs through the vagina every month during their fertility period is called menstruation.
  • Menstruation process is controlled by cyclic secretion of hormones and repeats every month so it is called menstrual cycle.
  • Health education, balance diet, cleanliness of the environment, and self cleanliness should be considered crucial in the period of menstruation.
  • The means and measures adopted for safe, protective and healthy reproductive are mentioned as sex and reproductive rights.
  • The sex and reproductive rights as brought forward by these two conventions are given in the following points:right to survive, right to equality, right to secrecy, right to independent law, right to freedom.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
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Questions and Answers

Every individual should have the knowledge about the reproductive health and their right. Followingmeasures should be adopted for the reproductive right:

  • We should avoid early and late marriage.
  • We should maintain proper birth gap between two children.
  • We must be careful towards the health of mother and child.
  • We should develop mutual understanding of ht couple for intercourse and conception.
  • We should be safe from the venereal and other communicable disease.
  • We must be conscious towards proper nutrition and immunization of diseases.
  • We should avoid unwanted child and criminal abortion.
  • We should use the contraceptive means for proper enjoyment conjugal life and birth control.
Family planning is the planning of family income, proper management and utilization of resources for the betterment of their living standard.
The following factors to be considered during menstruation are as follows:
  • Bed rest is harmful if one has severe pain. So, we should do light work and exercise.
  • Drink too much fluid and have balanced diet avoiding spicy and fatty foods.
  • Cleanliness is must in this period, use sanitary pad, if is not available then the clean and soft cloth can be used.
  • Should take counseling from the elders.
  • Should avoid long travelling.
  • Should have balanced diet.
Reproductive rights are:
  • Right to survival
  • Right to personal freedom and security
  • Right to equality
  • Right to privacy
  • Right to express personal opinions.
  • Right to marry and make their own family.
  • Right to produce a child
  • Right to political participation in the establishment and promotion of reproductive health rights.

Menstruation is a series of physiological events occurring regularly in female every 26-30 days. It occurs throughout the reproductive period. An average length of menstruation cycle lasts for 28-30 days.

Phases of menstruation cycle are as follows:
  • The menstrual phase (about 4 days)
  • Proliferative phase (about 10 days)
  • Secretary phase (about 14 days)
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