Internal Commands

Subject: Computer

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Overview

Internal command are built in the COMMAND.COM files. It can be executed from any DOS prompt because each of the internal commands are memory resident. Some of the examples of internal commands are: DIR, CLS, COPY etc. This note contains further description on internal commands used in DOS.
Internal Commands

Change the Default Drive

To change the default drive, simply the drive letter is typed at the prompt. The new default will be listed subsequent DOS prompts.

Syntax: [drive:]
Use: This command changes the current drive.
Example: C:/>A:
Output: The drive changes from C to A as A:/>


DIR

Syntax: DIR [drive] [switches]
Where, switches and their meanings are given below:


Switch Meaning
/P Page-wise pausing
/W Wide-wise pausing
/AD Directories
/AH Hidden files
/0 Displays files/directories in sorted order with following specifications

Use: displays files, directories and sub-directory.
Example: dir/p
Output: displays list of directory page wise


Copy Con

Syntax: Copy Con
Use: Used to create a text file.
Example: C:\> Copy Con Nepal.txt
Now type some text
Save: Press F6 Key or Press CTRL+z

Scholarships after +2 Abroad Studies Opportunities

Other Examples:
C:\>Copy Con REED.TXT
Now type some text
press F6 or (Ctrl+Z) to save it.


TYPE

Syntax: TYPE
Use: Used to display content of a file.
Example: C:\>TYPE Nepal.txt
Output: This command display the information contained in the file name Nepal .TXT

Other Examples:
C:\>Type REED.TXT
Now you can view the content of REED.TXT


COPY

Syntax: COPY
Use: This command copies file(s) from one location to another.
Example: C:\>COPY Nepal china

Other Examples:
C:\>Copy RAMA.TXT B:
To copy Rama.txt file to drive B: working on C: drive.
C:\>Copy aa .txt + bb .txt + cc .txt +dd .txt
To merge the contents of aa.txt, bb .txt and cc.txt to a new filename dd.TXT


REN

Syntax: REN
Use: Used to rename a file.
Example: A:\> REN nepal. Doc patan.doc
Output: This will rename the old file nepal.doc into patan.doc

Other Examples:
C:\>REN*.COM*.EXE
To rename all the files having .com as an extension into the extension .exe with the same primary file name of drive C.


DEL

Syntax: DEL filename
Use: Used to delete file(s)
Example: C:\>DEL try.exe
Output: It deletes try.exe file from drive C.

Other Examples:
C:\>DEL*.DOC:
To delete all the files having .doc as an extension of drive C:
C:\>DEL R*.*
To delete all the files starting with R having any extension of drive C:.
D:\>DEL Comp???:
To delete all the files having 7 characters long starting with Comp having .TXT as an extension of drive D.


Date

Syntax:Date
Use: This command is used to display and change system date of computer.
Example: C:\>DATE
Output: Current date is sat 08-04-2004
Enter new date (mm-dd-yy):


Time

Syntax:TIME
Use: This command is used to change and display the current system time of the computer.
Example: C:\>TIME
Output: Current time is 7:15:01.91
Enter new time:


PROMPT

Syntax: PROMPT [text or definition]
Use: This command is used to change MS-DOS prompt.
Example: C:\PROMPT $P$D$G
Output: C:\02-07-2010> is displayed prompt

Prompt Symbol Meaning
$Q = (equal sign)
$$ $ (dollar sign)
$D Current date
$G > (greater sign)
$T Current time
VOL

Syntax: VOL [drive]
Use: Used to display volume label name of a disk.
Example: C:\>VOL
Output: Volume in drive C is new Volume Serial Number is 8B9F-9BFA.


VER

Syntax: VER
Use: Used to see the version of MS-DOS currently in use.
Example: C:\> VER
Output: Windows 98 [version 4.10.2222]


MD

Syntax: MD< directory- name>
Use: Used to create a directory
Example: C:\>MD School
Output: A directory named "School" is created in root directory C.


CD

Syntax: CD
Use: Used to change or get into the directory.
Example: C:\> CD School
Output: This command let us to go into directory School and we will be in C:\ School>


CD.. OR CD\

Syntax: CD..
Use: Used to escape from working directory.
Example: C:\School>CD.. or CD\
Output: It will escape from directory School to root directory C.


RD

Syntax: RD [directory]
Use: Used to remove directory, but the directory must be empty.
Example: C:\>RD School
Output: It removes directory School, which is in C drive.

Things to remember
  • Internal command are built in the COMMAND.COM files. It can be executed from any DOS prompt because each of the internal commands are memory resident. Some of the examples of internal commands are: DIR, CLS, COPY etc.
  • DIR  displays files, directories and sub-directory.
  • COPY CON creates a text file.
  • TYPE displays content of a file.
  • COPY copies file(s) from one location to another.
  • REN renames a file.
  • RD removes directory, but the directory must be empty
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
Videos for Internal Commands
DOS Commands basic
DOS commands Lecture by Ekta Sharma
MS DOS (Command Prompt) Basics
MSDOS Basics
Quiz

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