Types of Office

Subject: Accountancy

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Different types of office are established in the societies with different objectives. This note provides information about the types of different offices with their characteristics and functions.
Types of Office

Different types of office are established in the societies with different objectives. Some offices are established by the government in the public sector and some are established by individuals as a private sector. Some offices are established with the views of service motive and some are established with the profit motive. Therefore, on the basis of ownership and objectives, offices are divided as follow:

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1. Government office:

The government offices are the one which is established by the government for providing administrative services to the citizens and social-economic development of the country. The government approves the annual budget for such office and releases the budget for maintaining its expenditure. It follows government accounting system to record its revenues and expenditure. The employees are permanent who are appointed by the government. It is established in a country to provide security and peace. It provides administrative services to the people and involves in the social and economic development of the country. Ministry of Finance, Office of the Auditor General, department of Tax and District education office are some of the examples of government offices.

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The following are the main characteristics of government offices:

  1. It is established, managed and controlled fully by the government.
  2. It deposits its revenues in the government fund.
  3. Its accounts are audited by the Office of the Auditor General.
  4. It performs its financial transactions through the central bank (Nepal Rastra Bank).
  5. It receives its budget from the government to meet its expenditure.

Functions or objectives of government offices are:

  1. To maintain law and order and peace in the country.
  2. To defend the country against the internal and external attack and violation.
  3. To monitor the social and economic activities of the private sector.
  4. To maintain and develop warm the relationship with foreign countries.
  5. To provide different types of administrative services to be the individuals and corporations.
  6. To develop the basic infrastructures in the country.
  7. To protect private as well as public properties.

2. Business Office:

A business office is one which is established by the individuals or government for the production and distributions of goods and services with a view of earning money by satisfying the consumers. They are established by the industrial, trading and service businesses. The office of industrial business buys raw materials, converts these raw materials into finished goods and sold them in the market. The office of trading business buys finished goods and sells them in the market. The office of service business renders like banking, communication, insurance, transportation, and electricity to earn a profit.

On the basis of ownership and objectives, business office can be classified as follows:

  1. Office of Private Investment: The office which is established by the individuals in the private sector for maximizing profit is called the office of the private investment. The primary objective of such office is to maximize profit. They are established by sole trading, partnership firm and Joint Stock Company. They are managed and controlled by the proprietor, partners and board of directors. The office of Buddha Air Pvt. Ltd. And Panchakanya Industries Pvt. Ltd, Nepal Life insurance Co. Ltd. are examples of office of the private investment.

Characteristics of office of private investment

  1. It is established with the investment of owner, partners, and shareholders.
  2. Its volume of transactions is usually limited.
  3. It develops accounting system independently.
  4. It reports its activities, profit or loss and financial position to the owners and shareholders.
  5. Its accounts and financial statements are audited by the registered auditor.
  6. It is independent in making decisions and forming rules and regulations.

  1. Office of Government Investment: The office which is established by the investment of government in the public sector for the production and distribution of goods and services of daily necessities at the responsible price is called the office of the government investment. It is also known as public enterprises. The primary objective of this office is to provide services to the general people. It provides goods and services of daily necessities at a reasonable price. It is managed and controlled by the board of cooperation and Joint Stock Company. The office of Nepal Airlines Corporation, Nepal Oil Corporation, Nepal Telecom Company and Nepal Electricity Authority are some examples of office of government investment.

Characteristics of Office of government investment

  1. It is established with the sole or majority investment of the government.
  2. It is managed and controlled by the board of directors nominated by the government.
  3. It has a large volume of transactions.
  4. It is established and operated with the primary objective of rendering services.
  5. It reports its activities, profit or loss of organization or government.

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3. Service motive office

The service motive office is one which is established by the individuals or government for providing education, health, social and cultural services to the society without the intention of maximizing profit. It is managed and controlled by the executive committee or board. It is established with the aim of providing educational, health, social and cultural services to the society without any intention of maximizing profit. The office of Nepal Red Cross Society, Maiti Nepal, Nepal Children Association and Nepal Netra Jyoti Sang are some of the examples service motive offices.

Characteristics of service motive office

  1. It is established by the service motive office.
  2. It meets its expenditures with the amount of subscription contributed by the members or donation granted by the members and others.
  3. Its accounting is based on a cash basis.
  4. It reports its activities, incomes, expenses and financial position to its members.
  5. Its account and financial transaction are audited by the registered auditor.
  6. It has a separate legal status with independent management.
Things to remember
  • The government offices are the one which is established by the government for providing administrative services to the citizens and social economic development of the country. 
  • A business office is one which is established by the individuals or government for the production and distributions of goods and services with a view of earning money by satisfying the consumers.
  • The service motive office is one which is established by the individuals or government for providing education, health, social and cultural services to the society without the intention of maximizing profit. It is managed and controlled by the executive committee or board.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
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Questions and Answers

In our society there is different types of offices are established with different objectives. Some offices are established by the government in the public sector and some are established by individuals as a private sector. Some offices are established with the views of service motive and some are established with the profit motive. The types of offices are as follow:

Government offices

The government offices are the one which is established by the government for providing administrative services to the citizens and social economic development of the country. The government approves the annual budget for such office and releases the budget for maintaining its expenditure. It follows government accounting system to record its revenues and expenditure. The employees are permanent who are appointed by the government. It is established in a country to provide security and peace. It provides administrative services to the people and involves in the social and economic development of the country. Ministry of Finance, Office of the Auditor General, department of Tax and District education office are some of the examples of government offices.

Business offices

A business office is one which is established by the individuals or government for the production and distributions of goods and services with a view of earning money by satisfying the consumers. They are established by the industrial, trading and service businesses. The office of industrial business buys raw materials, converts these raw materials into finished goods and sold them in the market. The office of trading business buys finished goods and sells them in the market. The office of service business renders like banking, communication, insurance, transportation and electricity to earn a profit.

Service motive offices

The service motive office is one which is established by the individuals or government for providing education, health, social and cultural services to the society without the intention of maximizing profit. It is managed and controlled by the executive committee or board. It is established with the aim of providing educational, health, social and cultural services to the society without any intention of maximizing profit. The office of Nepal Red Cross Society, Maiti Nepal, Nepal Children Association, and Nepal Netra Jyoti Sang are some of the examples service motive offices.

The government offices are the one which is established by the government for providing administrative services to the citizens and social economic development of the country.Ministry of Finance, Office of the Auditor General, department of Tax and District education office are some of the examples of government offices.

Objectives of government offices are:

  1. To maintain law and order and peace in the country.
  2. To defend the country against the internal and external attack and violation.
  3. To monitor the social and economic activities of the private sector.
  4. To maintain and develop the warm relationship with foreign countries.
  5. To provide different types of administrative services to be the individuals and corporations.
  6. To develop the basic infrastructures in the country.
  7. To protect private as well as public properties.

Government offices provides administrative services to the people and involves in the social and economic development of the country.

Following are the main characteristics of government offices:

  1. It is established, managed and controlled fully by the government.
  2. It deposits its revenues in the government fund.
  3. Its accounts are audited by the Office of the Auditor General.
  4. It performs its financial transactions through the central bank (Nepal Rastra Bank).
  5. It receives its budget from the government to meet its expenditure.

The service motive office is one which is established by the individuals or government for providing education, health, social and cultural services to the society without the intention of maximizing profit.

Characteristics of service motive office

  1. It is established by the service motive office.
  2. It meets its expenditures with the amount of subscription contributed by the members or donation granted by the members and others.
  3. Its accounting is based on a cash basis.
  4. It reports its activities, incomes, expenses and financial position to its members.
  5. Its account and financial transaction are audited by the registered auditor.
  6. It has a separate legal status with independent management.

A business office is one which is established by the individuals or government for the production and distributions of goods and services with a view of earning money by satisfying the consumers. They are established by the industrial, trading and service business.On the basis of ownership and objectives, business office can be classified as follows:

1. Office of Private Investment: The office which is established by the individuals in the private sector for maximizing profit is called the office of the private investment. The office of Buddha Air Pvt. Ltd. And Panchakanya Industries Pvt. Ltd, Nepal Life insurance Co. Ltd. are examples of office of the private investment.

2. Office of Government Investment: The office which is established by the investment of government in public sector for the production and distribution of goods and services of daily necessities at responsible price is called office of the government investment. It is also known as public enterprises. The office of Nepal Airlines Corporation, Nepal Oil Corporation, Nepal Telecom Company and Nepal Electricity Authority are some examples of office of government investment.

3. Service motive office: The service motive office is one which is established by the individuals or government for providing education, health, social and cultural services to the society without the intention of maximizing profit.The office of Nepal Red Cross Society, Maiti Nepal, Nepal Children Association, and Nepal Netra Jyoti Sang are some of the examples service motive offices.

The following are the characteristics of the office of the private investment: -

  1. It is established with the investment of owner, partners, and shareholders.
  2. Its volume of transactions is usually limited.
  3. It develops accounting system independently.
  4. It reports its activities, profit or loss and financial position to the owners and shareholders.
  5. Its accounts and financial statements are audited by the registered auditor.
  6. It is independent in making decisions and forming rules and regulations.

The following are the main characteristics ofthe office of governmentinvestment: -

  1. It is established with the sole or majority investment of the government.
  2. It is managed and controlled by the board of directors nominated by the government.
  3. It has a large volume of transactions.
  4. It is established and operated with the primary objective of rendering services.
  5. It reports its activities, profit or loss of organization or government.

The government offices are the one which is established by the government for providing administrative services to the citizens and social economic development of the country.

A business office is one which is established by the individuals or government for the production and distributions of goods and services with a view of earning money by satisfying the consumers. They are established by the industrial, trading and service businesses.

The office which is established by the individuals in the private sector for maximizing profit is called the office of the private investment.

The office which is established by the investment of government in public sector for the production and distribution of goods and services of daily necessities at responsible price is called office of the government investment.

The service motive office is one which is established by the individuals or government for providing education, health, social and cultural services to the society without the intention of maximizing profit.

Any two characteristics of service motive office are as follows:

  1. It is established by the service motive office.
  2. It meets its expenditures with the amount of subscription contributed by the members or donation granted by the members and others.

Any two characteristics of the office of the government investment are as follows:

  1. It is established with the sole or majority investment of the government.
  2. It is managed and controlled by the board of directors nominated by the government.

Any two characteristics of the office of the private investment are as follows:

  1. It develops accounting system independently.
  2. It reports its activities, profit or loss and financial position to the owners and shareholders.

Any two functions of government offices are as follows:

  1. To maintain law and order and peace in the country.
  2. To defend the country against the internal and external attack and violation.

Any two characteristics of the government offices are as follows:

  1. It is established, managed and controlled fully by the government.
  2. It deposits its revenues in the government fund.
Quiz

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