US President Franklin D Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met in the Atlantic Ocean and decided to prevent the world from any type of war and to maintain collective peace and security throughout the world. So, a treaty called ' Atlantic Charter' was signed in the Atlantic Ocean. 4 years after the treaty was signed, on 24th October 1945, 15 countries formally established UNO which headquarter is in New York, USA.
Objectives of UNO
To maintain international peace and security
To develop friendly relations with nations on the basis of respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of people.
To cooperate in international, social, cultural, economic, human rights and to promote human and fundamental rights
To be the centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in attainment of achieving goal
Organs of the UNO
The UNO has 6 organs. They are explained as follows: -
General Assembly: It is the parliament of the UN. It is represented by all the member states. Every member states can send 5 representatives, but it can cast only one vote. Its main functions are to pass the budget of the UN, discuss international issues, amend the Charter if required and elect the members to the Security Council and the Economic and Social Council.
Security Council: It is the executive of the UN. It has 5 permanent and 10 temporary members elected by the General Assembly for a term of two years. Its main functions are to maintain world peace, recommend for the membership of new nations and make recommendations for the appointment of Secretary General and judges.
The Economic and Social Council: It attempts to create the world stability, prosperity, and justice. It has 54 member states elected by the General Assembly for a 3-year term. It works as per the direction of the General Assembly. It deals with the problems related to society, education, health, culture and economy.
Trusteeship Council: According to the Charter, this organ works for the development and cooperation between the nations which were created after World War II or for the nations which could not work independently. It has 7 administrative and 7 non-administrative members. It consists of 5 permanent nations, administrative nations of trust areas and other nations elected for three years.
International Court of Justice: It is the chief judicial organ of the UN. It has 15 judges elected by the General Assembly and the Security Council for a term of 9 years. The judges can be re-elected. Five judges vacate their posts every 3 years. It settles the disputes among the nations. Its headquarters is situated in the Hague, Holland.
Secretariat: There is a secretariat which runs the day-to-day administration of the UN. It has a Secretary General elected by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a term of 5 years. It conducts various activities to maintain peace, organizes international conferences for important worldwide issues, and publishes reports regarding human rights, situation, disarmament etc.
Things to remember
UNO stands for United Nations Organization.
4 years after the Atlantic Treaty was signed, on 24th October 1945, 15 countries formally established UNO which headquarter is in New York, USA.
General Assembly is the parliament of the UN. It is represented by all the member states.
Security Council has 5 permanent and 10 temporary members elected by the General Assembly for a term of two years.
There is a secretariat which runs the day-to-day administration of the UN.
It includes every relationship which established among the people.
There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
Videos for United Nations Organizations and Its Organs
UNO was established on 24th October, 1945 AD. Winston Churchill, the Prime Minister of Britain and Franklin D. Roosevelt, the President of USA are the two important persons who played a vital role in establishment of UNO. They discussed about the measures to be taken to restore peace and security in the world after the meeting on a battleship in the Atlantic Ocean in August 1941. They jointly issued a declaration charter known as the Atlantic Charter. Finally, UNO was established and the credit goes to them.
UNO, the only such world trusted humanitarian organization, has multi-dimensional functions. It has got 6 organs. Among them the Security Councilis establishment of the UNO, this organs work very importantly.
The structure of UNO is of two bases. On the one hand there are 5 permanent members like USA, Russia, China, Britain and France. They have got special veto power to use in special conditions. On the other hand 10 countries are temporarily elected from the UN member countries in the tenure of 2 years.
The main functions of UN are to maintain peace and security.
In parts of the world which has been in sensitive condition because of civil war, revolt and violence causing terror the UN peace keeping task force is recommended to do their jobs.
It has power to prepare the names according to which the general assembly appoints secretary general of UN.
It gives pressure through counseling in resolving disputes and establish peace through dialogues, negotiation etc.
It can recommend to the general assembly in the subjects of taking new member countries of the suspension from the UN membership.
Right to use veto power is in the hands of the five permanent member countries of the Security Council. As the result these countries have become most powerful. This is not right. At the same time of establishment of the UNO, probably it was an appropriate step taken by the founding nations, but, now in 21st century, there are many other countries which have emerged as the new power. They also contribute to run activities of the UNO. Either there should not be any provision of such permanent membership or, it should be broadly revised including other countries on the basis of their areas, population, economic status etc. The UN Security Council should be impartial and responsible to maintain peace and security in the world.