Subject: Social Studies and Population Education
Many factors affect temperature. Among them, three factors that affects temperature are as follows:
The height measured from sea level is called altitude. At low altitude, there is a thick mass of air which can absorb a sufficient amount of sun heat, so it is hot at low altitude. However, when the altitude increases, the temperature also gradually decreases. Therefore, at high altitude, there is a very thin mass of air which cannot absorb sufficient amount of sun's heat, so it is cold at high altitude. The temperature decreases by 10C when the altitude increases by 160 m to 165m.
It is one most important factor that affects the climate of a particular place. When the latitude increases, the distant from the sun also increases, so the temperature gradually decreases. The equator lies very near from the sun, so direct ray falls over there and it is very hot throughout the year. But poles lie far from the sun. So, slanting rays fall over there and it is very cold. So, it is cold winter is dominant throughout the year. No plants and animals can survive on poles particularly the South Pole.
During summer, the earth lies near the sun, so the perpendicular sun rays fall over there. The water of sea or ocean gets heated and cools down slowly in comparison to land. In comparison with water, land gets heated faster and cools down fast. As the distance from the sea or ocean increases, the temperature increases. During summer, due to direct fall of sun rays over the sea or ocean, the water is evaporated that causes the highest rainfall in this season.
During winter, the earth lies a little bit far from the sun. So, slanting sun rays fall on the earth. As we know that water absorbs more sun heat than the land. So, when the distance from the sea or ocean increases, the temperature gradually decreases as the land cools down fast. Due to less slanting rays during winter, less rainfall takes place as the evaporation takes place. Due to which the days in winter are shorter than in summer and less rainfall takes place.
The movement of oceanic water depends upon sea breeze and temperature. This keeps on flowing on the bank of the ocean which is called oceanic current. The equatorial region is very hot so the air coming from that region is warm. The air coming from the polar region is cold. So, the area where there is warm current, we find a warm climate there. Similarly, the area where there is cold current, we find a cold climate there.
State a major factor that affects the climate of Nepal.
The major factor that affects the climate of Nepal is the altitude.
The tropical zone with rainfall throughout the year is on both sides of the equator between 5°N and 7°S. Tropical and subtropical climate is there to the north and south of this zone.
How does distance from equator affect climate?
Latitude controls the climate by determining the slope and incidence of the sun rays. They slant extensively towards far north or far south. Slanting rays spread over and heat larger regions, but has low intensity, as on the poles. But the vertical rays cover and heat a smaller area intensively as on the equator. Here, higher the altitude, less intense is the heat. Indonesia has hotter climate than Nepal because it is near to the equator in comparison to Nepal.
The factors affecting climate are latitude, altitude, land and water distribution, distance from the sea, distance from the sun, prevailing winds and ocean currents, surface covering the land, volcanism, solar constant sunspots, wind direction and nature of mountain chains, mountain barriers.
Why is altitude taken as one of the influencing factors for determining climate? Write in a sentence.
1°C, temperature decreases in every 160-165 meters of altitude. So, it is taken as one of the influencing factors in determining the climate.
Higher we go, the cooler we feel. Give one geographical reason why we feel cool in high altitude.
We feel cool at higher altitude because of the decrease in temperature at every 165 meters.
The cause of the difference between the climate of Terai and Himalayan region is the altitude which brings variation in the temperature.
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