Subject: Social Studies and Population Education

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The executive is the organ of the government that carries out the decisions and order of the parliament. Generally it consists of the councils of ministers along with the state head, either a hereditary monarch or an elected president. This note provides us the information about executive and its function.


The executive is the organ that exercises authority and holds responsibility for the governance of a state. The executive executes and enforces the law. Generally, it consists of the councils of ministers, head of the state, head of the government. The executive makes programs and policies and executes the law passed by the legislature. The executive work of Nepal is carried out by the government of Nepal.

In a broader sense, the executive includes the law of the country that are empowered to implement by all the government employees. The executive directs, controls, and conducts the administration of the government. It works through the bureaucracy consisting of all from the secretary of the ministries to the peon of a VDC office.

In modern times, the importance of the executive has increased day by day. Before, the function of the executive was to maintain peace and order and mobilize revenue only. But now, the executive has to work for the all-around development of the nation apart from maintaining peace and order in the country.

The chief functions of the executive are as follows:

  1. To maintain the law and order and protect the country from foreign invasion.
  2. To impose taxes and run various development works.
  3. To sign treaties and make good diplomatic relations, depute ambassadors to the foreign countries.
  4. To run the administration of the country efficiently and provide basic service to the people.
  5. To present the budget in the parliament and operate it after the approval of the parliament.
  6. To table the draft bill in the parliament for appropriate law.
  7. To postpone the session of the parliament.
  8. To manage daily administration.
Things to remember
  • Executive is an important organ of the government that is responsible for putting the laws and order into effects. It is also known as Council of Ministers or cabinet or government.
  • The executive is the organ of the government that carries out the decisions and order of the parliament. 
  • Apart from maintaining peace and order in the country, the executive has to work for the all-round development of the nation.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
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Questions and Answers

An executive is one of the important organs of the government which executes the law that have been passed by the parliament. Its main functions are:

  • Administration: All important decisions concerning administration are carried out by the chief executive i.e. Prime Minister on the recommendation of the council of ministers.
  • Diplomatic: executive exercises power regarding various kinds of treaties, declare war, makes peace etc.
  • Financial: After final approval, the budget is put into force by the executive.
  • Legislative: An executive has some legislative work like making by-laws, rules and regulation, to order for fresh election etc.
  • Judicial: To appoint judges and maintain law and order in the country.

An executive is an organ of government which implements the law into practice. Nepal has a collation government. It is made under the leadership of Maoist. However, it is not the national government. The ministers are selected only from the collation parties. The largest numbers of ministers are of Maoist, the second highest number of ministers is that of Nepal Communist Party (UML) followed by the Madhesi People's right forum. The rest of the ministers is occupied by other parties. NCP (UML) secures the second rank in the council of ministers i.e. the deputy Prime Ministership is occupied by the party.

Yes, an executive is the second important organ of government. During the recent years, for various reasons, the importance of the executive has increased tremendously. In other word of Prof. Barker, "if the growth of the legislative organ was the notable feature of the 18th century, it may be said that the growth of the executive was only to maintain the legal system and collect the tax from the people in country. It controlled, directed and governed the state according to the constitution and other subordinate law.
Modern democratic state refers to the state of people's welfare. In addition to maintaining peace and good governance, the government of a state must be responsible for each sector of development. Executive, in the name of government, must provide people with food, shelter, clothes, education, health, employment and security.

The six main functions of an executive are as follows.

  1. To maintain law and order in the country and protect it from foreign invasion
  2. To run development work in the country
  3. To make diplomatic, relations, sign treaties and deputy ambassadors
  4. To summon, adjourn and postpone the session of parliament
  5. To present budget in the parliament and announce it publicly

The constitution of our country has given the legislature a very important responsibility. The council of the minister is led by prime Minister, who exercises excessive power and is called the 'head of government'. But the cabinet is made responsible to the legislature. The election is held by parliament for the duration of 5 years. The political party which wins the majority or the highest numbers of seats normally forms the government. It elects a leader of its party who is appointed as the prime minister. He has to take the oath of the president. The prime minister further forms the minister in different ministries.

All the organs of the government are independent but closely interlinked with each other. We apparently know that the executive is responsible to the legislature and the cabinet is originating from legislature's status of the political parties. But it's an unalienable fact that the executive  exercises greater power and functions that any other organs at the later days. It's getting stronger in the recent days. It holds greater numbers of authorities, power. This has given charm, country and executive works are largely borne by it. It is obviously felt that the persons in the cabinet normally have to be more efficient in leadership, diplomacy, tactful issues, boldness, etc. The presence of these people brings significance to the executive body. They are widely concerned and linked with the national and international issues and to the people. It adds personal dignity.
We are a transitionary period at present. We have changed the status of our political system. We are legally guided by the interim constitution-2063 according to which election of the constituent Assembly was held in 2064 BS. It has got 601 members. But the election gave no solid majority to any political parties. The dirty game of deception and instability has pulled down the Maoist let first government after the election. At present, there is the UML led government. Basically, whatever government structure gets changed, this has main responsibility to make environment for the formation simultaneously, and the running of day to day administration to bring systematic approach is the role of this government with lots of challenges.
Prime Minister is the head of the executive body.

The legislative body is the base of the formation.

Executive implements the rules made by the parliament where public opinion are discussed and brought into action.

Nepal communist party (Maoist) led the government after the election of the Constituent Assembly as being the highest seat winner.

Such a ruling system in which law and order are put on the prime factor without any autocracy in the government system is the rule of law.
In a democratic country, many political parties compete in the parliament election. The party which wins the highest number of seats legalized to form the government is multi-party governance system.

The Prime Minister is the head of the executive.

The main task of the present interim governance is to draft statute.

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