Climatic Condition of Nepal

Subject: Science

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Overview

Nepal lies in the temperate region of the world where sun rays are moderate. Nepal has two major seasons, summer with prominent monsoon and winter. This note provides us an information about the monsoon and its climate.
Climatic Condition of Nepal

Nepal lies in the temperate region of the world where sun rays are moderate. On average its climate is tropical monsoon type.Nepal lies in 260 to 300 latitude. The region above 300 north and lower 300 south of the equator is called tropical region. So, Nepal lies in the tropical region. 60 m to 1200 m above the sea level tropical climate is found. Here temperature reaches above 400C in summer and below 60C in winter. In this region, evergreen forests are found.

1200-2100 m above the sea level warm climate is found. Here temperature reaches up to 300 C in summer. Deciduous forest is found in this region.

Above 1200-2100 m from the sea level, the cold climate is found. Here temperature reaches up to 150 C in summer. Throughout the year, thisregion is always covered with snow. This region is called tundra region and no any vegetation is found here.

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In summer, monsoon causes heavy rainfall. The temperature measures about 10-18° in the Terai and goes on decreasing towards the north. Normal average temperature falls below 0° Celsius in the Himalaya region. The western part of the country receives more rain than the east. It is caused by the moist westerly winds coming from Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Persian Gulf, etc.

Monsoon

Monsoon starts with rainfall. In Nepal April to October is pre-monsoon. June, July and August are mid-monsoon. Heavy rainfall occurs in those months. Late monsoon starts from October which relatively has less rainfall. Monsoon is not rainfall, but it is seasonal and periodic storm.

In winter, the land becomes cold and ocean remains hot. Pressure on land is more than the pressure in the ocean. So, wind blows from land to ocean. This is called winter monsoon. In summer, land becomes hot and ocean becomes cold. The pressure in the ocean is more than the pressure in the land. So, the wind blows from ocean to land. In this condition heavy rainfall occurs. This condition is summer monsoon. The Southeast region of Asia in China, Korea etc. monsoon climate is found. Summer is wet and winter is dry in this type of climatic condition.

The moist westerly winds coming from Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Persian Gulf, etc. in winter there is a lot of snowfall in the high elevations. In summer, monsoon wind comes from the Bay of Bengal. So, eastern part receives more rainfall in summer.

The south-east part of Pokhara is open and it has got the mountain in the southern part. That is why Pokhara receives the highest amount of rainfall in Nepal, but Manang near Pokhara which gets rain shadow is place getting lowest rainfall in Nepal.

Effects of Monsoon

Agriculture of Nepal depends on the monsoon as irrigation is done by the monsoon rain. Monsoon rain wets ground and helps to maintain the level of underground water. Rainfall also helps to produce hydroelectricity in our country.

Sometimes excessive rainfall causes flood, landslide and soil erosion in Nepal. For that disasters, people need to get ready for different environmental conservation methods like afforestation.

Things to remember
  • Nepal lies in the temperate region of the world where sun rays are moderate.
  • On average its climate is tropical monsoon type.
  • The region above 300 north and lower 300 south to the equator is called tropical region.
  • The south-east part of Pokhara is opened and it has got the mountain in the southern part.
  • Agriculture of Nepal depends on the monsoon as irrigation is done by the monsoon rain.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
Questions and Answers

Manang is near Pokhara which gets highest amount of rainfall. Therefore, Manang gets rainshadows. Due to rain shadows Manang gets less rainfall.

The region above 300 north and lower 300 south of the equator is called tropical region.

South-east part of Pokhara is opened and it has got the mountain in the southern part. That is why Pokhara receives highest amount of rainfall in Nepal.

The moist westerly winds coming from Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Persian Gulf, etc. in winter there is a lot of snowfall in the high elevations. In summer, monsoon wind comes from the Bay of Bengal. So, eastern part receives more rainfall in summer.

In winter, land is cold oceans remains hot. Pressure on land is more than the pressure in the ocean. So, wind blows from land to ocean. This is called winter monsoon.

In summer, land is hot and oceans are cold. Pressure in the ocean is more than the pressure in the land. So, wind blows from the ocean to land. In this condition heavy rainfall occurs. This condition is summer monsoon.

Agriculture of Nepal depends on the monsoon as irrigation is done by the monsoon rain. Monsoon rain wets the ground and helps to maintain the level of underground water. Rainfall also helps to increse the river volume which is used to produce hydroelectricity in our country. So, monsoon rain is essential for Nepal.

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