Distillation

Subject: Science

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Overview

When two or more liquids having different boiling points are mixed, they can be separated by heating which is called distillation. Fractional distillation is a technique used when separating a mixture of two liquids that do not "behave" well enough to use simple distillation. This note explains about distillation and mixture.
Distillation

A mixture is a substance or mass in which two or more than two substances when brought together do not undergo chemical change but simply lie together and retain their identity. Mixtures like air, cold drinks, and treated water are all useful mixtures. There are two types of mixture that is heterogeneous and homogeneous. A homogeneous mixture is that mixture in which the solute component molecules cannot be seen with the naked eye. In heterogeneous mixtures, the one or both the components present may be seen through naked eye because they are big in size. The constituents of a mixture can be separated by using specific techniques based on differences in their properties.

Activity 1

  1. Take a small quantity of sand and mix it with camphor.
  2. Put the mixture in a porcelain basin and cover it with a funnel in the inverted position.
  3. Close the stem of the funnel with a dry cloth.
  4. Put wet cotton around the funnel stem.
  5. Heat the basin gently on a flame until you can see lining inside the funnel.

In this way, you can separate a mixture of camphor and sand. Similarly, ammonium chloride and iodine also can be separated.

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Distillation

In the case of the solution, If the solution is recoverable, the solution is boiled in a distillation flask. The liquid turns into the vapour form. The vapour is allowed to pass through the condenser (Liebig's Condenser). The condenser has two side tubes. Through lower side tube cool tap water is passed which circulates the central tube through lower side tube cool tap water is passed which circulates the central tube through which vapour comes and releases out from upper side tube, thus condensing vapour into liquid. The liquid is collected in a receiver.

A Thermometer is fitted in the flask to measure the boiling point of the liquid. If two liquids are mixed, first, the liquid which has a lower boiling point is distilled and second, a liquid which has a higher boiling point is distilled.

Fractional Distillation

Fractional distillation is a technique used when separating a mixture of two liquids that do not "behave" well enough to use simple distillation. First of all liquid with low boiling point and the high boiling point should be separated. In this process, the fractional column is used. In this process, liquid with the lower boiling point is vaporated faster than the liquid with the higher boiling point. Petroleum products are also separated by fractional distillation.

Things to remember
  • A mixture is a substance or mass in which two or more than two substances when brought together do not undergo chemical change but simply lie together and retain their identity. 
  • When two or more liquids having different boiling points are mixed, they can be separated by heating which is called distillation. 
  • Fractional distillation is a technique used when separating a mixture of two liquids that do not "behave" well enough to use simple distillation.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
Videos for Distillation
A Brief Introduction to Fractional Distillation
Distillations
Lab demonstration of distillation process
Questions and Answers
  • Step 1 – magnet is brought closer to the mixture of iron dust + sand.
  • Step 2 – Iron dust will attach to the magnet.
  • Step1 – iron dust is separated from salt and sand by using magnet
  • Step2 – solution of sand and salt is made by using water
  • Step3 – sand is separated from mixture by filtration
  • Step4 – by evaporation salt is separated from mixture of salt and water
  • Step1 – iron dust is separated from sand and salt by using magnet
  • Step2 – camphor is separated by sublimation
  • Step3 – solution of salt and sand is made by filtration
  • Step5 – by evaporation salt is separated from the mixture of salt and water.

Fractional distillation is a technique used when separating a mixture of two liquids that do not "behave" well enough to use simple distillation.

A mixture is a substance or mass in which two or more than two substances when brought together do not undergo chemical change but simply lie together and retain their identity.

There are two types of mixture. They are heterogeneous and homogeneous.

Homogeneous mixtures are those mixtures in which the solute component molecules cannot be seen through naked eye. Example: salt solution, sugar solution so on.

Heterogeneous mixtures are the mixture in which the one or both the components present may be seen through naked eye because they are big in size. The constituents of a mixture can be separated by using specific techniques based on differences in their properties. Example: mixture of sand and soil

Quiz

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