Metal

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Overview

Elements which have positive electric charge typically with a shiny surface and a good conductor of heat is metal. Different metals have different properties and uses. This note briefly describes the features of different metals such as gold, silver, iron, copper and aluminum with their properties.
Metal

There are total 118 elements found till today. Out of them, 92 elements are naturally found and 26 elements are artificially discovered. They have their own properties. Depending upon their properties, they are classified as metals, non- metals and metalloids. Among them, metals are widely used. Those elements which have positive electric charge typically with a shiny surface and a good conductor of heat and electricity are known as metals. Metals are malleable and ductile. Generally, metals have high boiling points. Metals lie on D-Block of the periodic table.

Gold

Gold is a soft, lustrous yellow metal. It is a 'D' block transition element in the periodic table. It belongs to the period 6 and group IB. Some important ores of gold are:

  1. Calaverite
  2. Sylvanite
  3. Nagyagite
  4. Petzite
  5. Krennerite
    Source: www.funonsite.com Fig: Gold
    Source: www.funonsite.com
    Fig: Gold

Physical properties of gold

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  1. Gold possesses a lustrous yellow color.
  2. It has a melting point 1063°C and boiling point of 2610°C
  3. It is a heavy metal with specific gravity 19.3.
  4. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity.
  5. It is less reactive metal.

Uses of gold

  1. It is used for making jewelry, coins, and medals.
  2. It is used for making gold leaf electroscope.
  3. It is used for making alloys.

Silver

Silver is the "D" block transition element. It belongs to the group IB of the periodic table. Some important ores of silver are:

  1. Argentite
  2. Horn silver
  3. Silver copper glance
  4. Pyrolite
    Source: dreamsrecycled.com Fig: Silver
    Source: dreamsrecycled.com
    Fig: Silver

Physical properties of silver

  1. Silver is white lustrous metal.
  2. Its specific gravity is 10.52.
  3. Its melting point is 9600C and boiling point is 19550C.
  4. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity.
  5. It is malleable and ductile in nature.

Uses of silver

  1. It is used to make coins, jewelry, and decorative articles.
  2. Silver bromide is used in photography. It is used in electroplating.

Copper

Copper belongs to Group IB and period 4 of the periodic table. It is and' block element. It is also known as a transition element. Important ores of copper are:

  1. Cuprite (Ruby copper)
  2. Copper pyrite ( Chalcopyrite)
  3. Copper glance ( Chalcocite)
  4. Malachite
    Source; pazmetals.com Fig: Copper
    Source; pazmetals.com
    Fig: Copper

Physical properties of copper

  1. Copper is a red brownish metal with a metallic luster.
  2. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity.
  3. Its specific gravity is 8.95.
  4. It is highly malleable and ductile in nature.
  5. Its melting point is 1083°C and its boiling point is 2350°C.

Uses of copper

  1. Copper is used for making electrical goods and cables.
  2. It is used for making copper leaf electroscope.
  3. It is used for making utensils, coins, jewelry, etc.
  4. It is used in the manufacture of dyes and pesticides.

Iron

Iron is a transitional element and known as "d" block element. It belongs to Group VIII of the periodic table. It is the first transition series in the fourth period. On the left side of it, manganese is located whereas on the right-hand side, cobalt is found. Important ores of iron are:

  1. Hematite
  2. Magnetite
  3. Siderite
  4. Limonite
  5. Iron pyrite
    Source; pixabay.com Fig: Iron
    Source; pixabay.com
    Fig: Iron


Physical properties of Iron

  1. Pure iron is a silvery white metal and lustrous metal.
  2. Its specific gravity is 7.86.
  3. Iron melts at 1550ºC and boils at 2400ºC.
  4. Iron is a good conductor of heat and electricity.
  5. It is malleable and ductile in nature.

Uses of Iron

  1. It is used in the manufacture of steel.
  2. It is used in making household utensils.
  3. It is used as a catalyst in different chemical reactions.
  4. It is used in making rods, pipes, chains, vehicles, railway tracks, etc.

Aluminium

Aluminum is a 'p' block element. It belongs to the period 3 and group III A of the periodic table. Some important ores of aluminum are:

  1. Bauxite
  2. Feldspar
  3. China clay
  4. Caryolite
    Source: www.dhk.be Fig: Aluminium
    Source: www.dhk.be
    Fig: Aluminium

Physical properties of aluminium

  1. Aluminum is a bluish-white shining metal.
  2. It is the lightest metal and its specific gravity is 2.7.
  3. Its melting point is 6600C and boiling point is 18000C.
  4. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity.
  5. It is malleable and ductile in nature.

Uses of aluminum

  1. Aluminium is used for making utensils, frames, electrical appliances, etc.
  2. It is used for making electrical wire.
  3. It is used for making alloys and coins.
  4. Its alloys are used for making sailboats, aircraft, etc.
  5. It is used for making aluminum foils which are used for wrapping food, cigarette, etc.
Things to remember
  • Those elements which have positive electric charge typically with a shiny surface and a good conductor of heat is known as metals. 
  • Generally metals have high boiling points. Metals lie on D-Block of the periodic table.
  • Gold is a soft, lustrous yellow metal. It is a 'D' block transition element in the periodic table.
  • Silver is the "D" block transition element. It belongs to the group IB of the periodic table. 
  • Copper belongs to Group IB and period 4 of the periodic table. It is a 'D' block element.
  • Iron is a transitional element and known as 'D' block element. It belongs to Group VIII of the periodic table.
  • Aluminium is a 'p' block element. It belongs to the period 3 and group III A of the periodic table.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
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Questions and Answers

The ores of iron are:

  1. Bauxite
  2. Feldspar
  3. China clay
  4. Caryolite

The ores of gold are:

  1. Calaverite
  2. Sylvanite
  3. Nagyagite
  4. Petzite
  5. Krennerite

The ores of silver are:

  1. Argentite
  2. Horn silver
  3. Silver copper glance
  4. Pyrolite

The ores of copper are:

  1. Cuprite (Ruby copper)
  2. Copper pyrite ( Chalcopyrite)
  3. Copper glance ( Chalcocite)
  4. Malachite

The ores of iron are:

  1. Hematite
  2. Magnetite
  3. Siderite
  4. Limonite
  5. Iron pyrite

The properties of gold are:

  1. Gold possesses a lustrous yellow color.
  2. It has a melting point 1064°C and boiling point of 2700°C
  3. It is a heavy metal with specific gravity 19.3.
  4. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity.
  5. It is less reactive metal.

The uses of gold are:

  1. It is used for making jewelry, coins, and medals.
  2. It is used for making gold leaf electroscope.
  3. It is used for making alloys.

The properties of silver are:

  1. Silver is white lustrous metal.
  2. Its specific gravity is 10.52.
  3. Its melting point is 9610C and boiling point is 21620C.
  4. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity.
  5. It is malleable and ductile in nature.

The uses of silver are:

  1. It is used to make coins, jewelry, and decorative articles.
  2. Silver bromide is used in photography. It is used in electroplating.

The properties of copper are:

  1. Copper is a red brownish metal with a metallic luster.
  2. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity.
  3. Its specific gravity is 8.95.
  4. It is highly malleable and ductile in nature.
  5. Its melting point is 1538°C and its boiling point is 2862°C.

The uses of copper are:

  1. Copper is used for making electrical goods and cables.
  2. It is used for making copper leaf electroscope.
  3. It is used for making utensils, coins, jewelry, etc.
  4. It is used in the manufacture of dyes and pesticides.

The properties of iron are:

  1. Pure iron is a silvery white metal and lustrous metal.
  2. Its specific gravity is 7.86.
  3. Iron melts at 1538ºC and boils at 2862ºC.
  4. Iron is a good conductor of heat and electricity.
  5. It is malleable and ductile in nature.

The uses of iron are:

  1. It is used in the manufacture of steel.
  2. It is used in making household utensils.
  3. It is used as catalyst in different chemical reactions.
  4. It is used in making rods, pipes, chains, vehicles, railway tracks, etc.

The physical properties of aluminium are:

  1. Aluminum is a bluish-white shining metal.
  2. It is the lightest metal and its specific gravity is 2.7.
  3. Its melting point is 6600C and boiling point is 24700C.
  4. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity.
  5. It is malleable and ductile in nature.

The uses of aluminium are:

  1. Aluminum is used for making utensils, frames, electrical appliances, etc.
  2. It is used for making electrical wire.
  3. It is used for making alloys and coins.
  4. Its alloys are used for making sailboats, aircraft, etc.
  5. It is used for making aluminum foils which are used for wrapping food, cigarette, etc.
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