Introduction to Matter

Subject: Science

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A substance which cannot be further broken down into other simpler substances is called an element. Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, mercury, lead, etc. are the examples of the element. This note provides further information about the matter.
Introduction to Matter

Introduction

Various types of substances can be found in our surrounding. Some substances are very simple whereas some are very complex. Some substances can be broken into other simpler substances while some substances cannot be broken. A substance which cannot be further broken down into other simpler substances is called an element. Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, mercury, lead, etc. are the examples of the element. There are altogether 109 elements known so far. Out of them, 92 elements are naturally found and remaining 26 elements are artificially prepared by scientists. Elements combine together to form a new substance, which is called a compound. Salt, water, chalk, carbon dioxide, etc. are the examples of a compound.

Source; thescienceclassroom.org Fig: Classification of Matter
Source; thescienceclassroom.org
Fig: Classification of Matter


Atom

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An atom is the smallest particle of an element which can take part in a chemical reaction. They are different in size, masses, and chemical properties. For example atoms of hydrogen are similar in all respects whereas the atoms of oxygen elements are different. 118 elements have 118 different types of atoms. So, different elements have different atoms.

Source: www.enotes.com Fig: Atom
Source: www.enotes.com
Fig: Atom

Molecule

The smallest particles of an element or compound are called molecule. For example, a molecule of chlorine is made of two atoms of chlorine, it is denoted by Cl. The molecule of a compound contains two or more atoms of different elements. For example, a molecule of water (H2O) contains two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. It is represented by H2O.

Source: www.enotes.com Fig: Water molecule
Source: www.enotes.com
Fig: Water molecule
Things to remember
  • A substance which cannot be further broken down into other simpler substances is called an element. Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, mercury, lead, etc. are the examples of element.
  • There are altogether 109 elements known so far.
  • An atom is the smallest particle of an element which can take part in a chemical reaction.
  • Elements combine together to form a new substance, which is called compound.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
Videos for Introduction to Matter
How Molecules are formed ?
Introduction to Atoms and Molecules
Questions and Answers

An element is simplest pure substances that can neither be divided into simpler ones nor can it be made from two or more substances by any method e.g: hydrogen, helium and etc.

A compound is a substance formed by the combination of two or more than two elements.

An atom is the smallest particle of an element which can take part in the chemical reaction.

The smallest particles of an element or a compound is called molecule.

Any two examples of compounds are sodium chloride and sodium oxide.

Any things which has mass and occupy space is called matter.
Quiz

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