Seed

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Overview

The monocotyledonous seed has only one cotyledon. This note provides us an information about the types of seed.
Seed

The Seed is the fertilized, matured ovule of a flowering plant, containing an embryo or rudimentary plant.Seeds are of different shape, size and colour. Specially seeds are of two types. They are:

  1. Monocotyledonous
  2. Dicotyledonous
Structure of seed

Seeds have the different shape, size and types but have same formation.

Monocotyledonous Seed

Maize and wheat have monocotyledonous seed. The monocotyledonous seed has only one cotyledon. Monocots have only one seed leaf inside the seed coat. It is often only a thin leaf because the endosperm to feed the new plant is not inside the seed leaf. When a monocot seed germinates, it produces a single leaf. It is usually long and narrow, like the adult leaf. Even when it is quite a round shape, there is only one seed leaf in a monocot.

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The leaves of monocots are often long and narrow, with their veins in straight lines, up and down the leaf. Sometimes, the veins run from the centre of the leaf to the edge, parallel to one another.The stems of monocots are usually unbranched and fleshy. They do not grow thicker from year to year. New leaves often grow wrapped in a protective sheath formed by the older leaf.

Dicotyledonous seed

When a dicot germinates, it produces two seed leaves. They contain the food for the new plant, so they are usually fatter than the true leaves. The first true leaves are often found in different shapes and sizes. The veins go from the central midrib to the edge of the leaf, crossing and joining to form a netted pattern all over the leaf. If dicotyledonous seed is divided then we can see two different parts called radicle and plumule. Radicle transforms into roots and plumule transform into a stem. When a seed is about to germinate endosperm stores food in it. Many seeds don't have endosperm and they are called non-endospermic seed. Gram and pea are non-endospermic seeds.

The stems of dicots are usually tough. They can grow wider each year and are often branched. They sometimes have stipules at the base of the leaf. The root is often a single long tap root with smaller roots growing from it. The roots of dicots are usually short and stringy. Dicots often have bulbs.

The difference between Monocotyledonous and Dicotyledonous seed.
S.N Monocotyledonous seed Dicotyledonous seed
1. It has single cotyledon. It has two cotyledon.
2. It usually has endosperm. It usually doesn’t have endosperm.
3. Hilum and micropyle cannot be seen by naked eyes. Hilum and micropyle can be seen by naked eyes.
4. Plumule is very small. Plumule is very big.
5. Most monocots are small herbaceous plants. Dicots come in all shapes and sizes.
6. In monocots, the seed pod usually has three parts, because the carpel that they grew from has three parts. The seed pods of dicots can have just one part or many parts.
Things to remember
  • The monocotyledonous seed has only one cotyledon.
  • Monocots have only one seed leaf inside the seed coat.
  • If dicotyledonous seed is divided then we can see two different parts called radicle and plumule.
  • Many seeds do not have endosperm and they are called non-endospermic seed.
  • Radicle transforms into roots and plumule transform into the stem.
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Videos for Seed
Monocots vs Dicots Explained
Seed Plants
The structure of dicotyledonous seed
The structure of monocotyledonous seed
Questions and Answers

The seed is a the fertilized, matured ovule of a flowering plant, containing an embryo or rudimentary plant.There are two types of seed. They are:

  1. Monocotyledonous
  2. Dicotyledonous
The difference between monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seed are as follows:
S.N Monocotyledonous seed Dicotyledonous seed
1. It has single cotyledon. It has two cotyledon.
2. It usually has endosperm. It usually doesn’t have endosperm.
3. Hilum and micropyle cannot be seen by naked eyes. Hilum and micropyle can be seen by naked eyes.
4. Plumule is very small. Plumule is very big.
5. Most monocots are small herbaceous plants. Dicots come in all shapes and sizes.
6. In monocots, the seed pod usually has three parts, because the carpel that they grew from has three parts. The seed pods of dicots can have just one part or many parts.

The leaves of monocots are often long and narrow, with their veins in straight lines, up and down the leaf. Sometimes, the veins run from the centre of the leaf to the edge, parallel to one another.The stems of monocots are usually unbranched and fleshy. It has parallel venation. They do not grow thicker from year to year. New leaves often grow wrapped in a protective sheath formed by the older leaf.

The dicotyledonous seed are divided into:

  1. Radicle
  2. Plumule

Radicle transforms into roots and plumule transforms into stem when they become mature.

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