This note explains about the non-finite forms of verb.
A verb that is limited by the person and number of the subject is called a finite verb. For an example:
He goes to the school to study.
They go to the school to study.
A verb not limited by a person and number is called a non-finite verb.
There are three groups of non-finite:
to steal, to forget, to write(present infinitive)to have stolen, to have forgotten (past infinitive)
stolen, forgotten, written (past participle)
The infinitive is also referred to as the to-verb. But it can be used with or without to:
When an infinitive is used without to, it is called a bare infinitive.
A word which is like a verb but performs the work of an adjective is called a participle. We may say that a participle is a verbal adjective.
In the sentences below, the words printed in bold letters are also participles:
The broken windows had to be replaced.
The injured man was taken to the hospital.
There are two kinds of participles:
(b) The present participle describes an incomplete action or state: The burning house ( the process of burning continued)
(c) The present participle is active in form: The waiting guests (the guest were waiting- active)
(a) The past participle usually ends in -ed, -d, -t, -en or -n.
(b) The past participle denotes an action or state which is completed: The broken window (The process of getting broken is completed.)(c) If the past participle is formed from a transitive verb, it is passive in form: The injured man (the man is injured- passive)
A word which is like a verb but performs the work of a noun is called a gerund. We may say that a gerund is a verbal noun.For an example:
Dancing is good for health.
Collecting stamps is her hobby.
Both the gerund and the present participle are formed by adding -ing to the verb. How are they then different from each other?
A gerund is a verbal noun: I am tired of your grumbling.
A present participle is a verbal adjective: Grumbling children are not liked.
Verbs: Non-finite Forms
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