Verbs

Subject: English

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Overview

A verb denotes an action or being or possession. This note gives the information about the verbs and parts of verbs.
Verbs

A verb denotes an action or being or possession.For example:

The referee showed the red card.(action)

Jaya hit the ball hard.(action)

Manoj is intelligent.(being)

A verb that requires an object to complete its meaning is called a transitive verb.

A verb that does not require an object to complete its meaning but has a complete meaning by itself is called an intransitive verb.

Verbs like be (is, are, am, was, were, will be, shall be, etc.), appear, seem and look are incomplete verbs.

Chief parts of verb

The chief parts of a verb are:

  1. The present tense (first form)
  2. The past tense (second form)
  3. The past participle (third form)

For example, the chief part of the verb go are:

  1. Go (the present tense)
  2. Went (the past tense)
  3. Gone (the past participle)

They are called the chief parts because we can form all the other parts of a verb with their help.

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Strong and weak verbs

  • Weak verbs form their past tense by adding -ed, or -d, or -t to the present:
Present tense Past tense
laugh laughed
receive received
learn learnt
  • Strong verbs form their past tense by changing the inside vowel(s) of their present tense :
Present tense Past tense
come came
know knew
speak spoke

Strong verbs

Present Past Past participle
arise arose arisen
awake awaked, awoke awaked, awoken
bear bore born, borne
beat beat beaten
become became become
begin began begun
bid bade,bid bidden, bid
bind bound bound
bite bit bit, bitten
blow blew blown
break broke broken
choose chose chosen
come came come
dig dug dug
do did done
draw drew drawn
drink drank drunk
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
fight fought fought
find found found
fly flew flown
forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
get got got
give gave given
go went gone
grow grew grown
hang hung hung
hide hid hidden, hid
hold held held
know knew known
lie lay lain
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
see saw seen
shake shook shaken
shine shone shone
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
speak spoke spoken
spring sprang sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck struck
sting stung stung
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
tear tore torn
throw threw thrown
understand understood understood
wake woke woken
wear wore worn
win won won
wind wound wound
withdraw withdrew withdrawn
wring wrung wrung
write wrote written

Weak verbs

Present Past Past participle
bend bent bent
bring brought brought
build built built
burn burnt, burned burnt, burned
catch caught caught
creep crept crept
dare dared dared
deal dealt dealt
deceive deceived deceived
die died died
dive dived dived
dream dreamt,dreamed dreamt,dreamed
dwell dwelt dwelt
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
flee fled fled
flow flowed flowed
hang hanged hanged
have had had
hear heard heard
keep kept kept
kneel knelt knelt
lay laid laid
lead led led
learn learnt, learned learnt, learned
light lit, lighted lit, lighted
lie lied lied
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
melt melted melted
pay paid paid
prove proved proved
quarrel quarrelled quarrelled
raise raised raised
saw sawed sawed
say said said
sell sold sold
send sent sent
shoot shot shot
show showed showed
sleep slept slept
smell smelt smelt
sow sowed sowed
spend spent spent
sweep swept swept
teach taught taught
tell told told
think thought thought
travel travelled travelledd
weep wept wept
work worked worked

Some troublesome verbs

Born, borne

Bear has the following forms:

Present Past Past participle
bear bore born (to give birth)
bear bore borne (to carry)

For example:-

Kamal was born in 1996.

The almirah was so heavy that it could be borne with great difficulty.

Hung, hanged

Hang has the following forms:

Present Past Past particile
hang hung hung (to suspend)
hang hanged hanged

(to put to death by tying

a rope round the neck)

The criminal was hanged.

She hung the gown in the wardrobe.

They hung the picture on the wall.

Lie

Lie has the following forms:

Present Past Past participle
lie lay lain (to rest)
lie lied lied (to speak falsely)

I was tired. So I laydown for a little while.

Let me liehere.

I know you liedto me.

Rise, raise

To rise means to get up or to come up. To raise means to lift.

Formation of verbs

We can form verbs

  1. from noun: courage:- encourage;friend:- befriend; class:- classify
  2. from adjectives: rich :-enrich; fresh:-refresh; loose:- loosen;
Things to remember
  • A verb denotes an action or being or possession.
  • A verb that requires an object to complete its meaning is called a transitive verb.
  • A verb that does not require an object to complete its meaning but has a complete meaning by itself is called an intransitive verb.
  • Verbs like be (is, are, am, was, were, will be, shall be, etc.), appear, seem and look are incomplete verbs.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
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