Conjunctions

Subject: English

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Overview

A conjunction is a word used to join words, groups of words or sentences.In this note, we have discussed conjunction,coordinating conjunction and its types.
Conjunctions

Introduction:

A conjunction is a word used to join words, groups of words or sentences.
The sun was shining and a hot wind was blowing.

There was noise around me, but I was not disturbed.

In these sentences, the words in bold letters are all conjunctions.

Coordinating conjunctions

A conjunction used to join two independent statements or two statements of equal rank or importance is called a coordinating conjunction. ( 'coordinating' means of equal rank.) There are four types of coordinating conjunctions:

Conjunctions that merely add one statement or fact to another.

And, both.... and, as well as, no less than, not only......but also are common conjunctions of this type:

And

The weather was fine and the sea was calm.

(The weather was fine. The sea was calm. )

Both .... and

She is both intelligent and hardworking.

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( She is intelligent. She is hardworking. )

As well as

He, as well as his father, is sincere.

( He is sincere. His father is sincere. )

No less than

He no less than his brother is guilty.

( His brother is guilty. He is equally guilty. )

Not only ...... but also

He is given not only a merit certificate but also a handsome scholarship.

( He was given a merit certificate. He was given a handsome scholarship. )

Conjunctions that express opposition or contrast between two statements.

But

The bus was fully packed, but we got comfortable seats.

(The bus was fully packed. We got comfortable seats)

Still, yet

Rabin is quite rich, still, he is not contented.

( Rabin is quite rich. He is not contended. )

Nevertheless

We were very tired; nevertheless, we continued work.

( We were very tired. We continued the work. )

Whereas, while

Whereas/While wise men prefer virtue, fools prefer beauty.

( Wise man prefer virtue. Fools prefer beauty. )

Conjunction that express a choice between two alternatives

Or

You must apologize, or you will be dismissed.

(You must apologize. You will be dismissed. )

Either .... or

Either attend to your lesson or leave the class.

( Attend to your lesson. Leave the class. )

Neither .... nor

He is neither lazy nor careless.

( He is not lazy. He is not careless. )

Otherwise, else

Hurry up, otherwise, you will be late for the school.

Hurry up, else you will be late for the school.

( Hurry up. You will be late for the school. )

Conjunctions by which one statement or fact are inferred from another.

For

She will rise in life for she is sincere and hardworking.

(She will rise in life. She is sincere and hardworking.)

So, therefore

He did not report in time, so he was not selected.

We missed the bus, therefore we took a taxi.

Subordinating conjunctions

A conjunction used to join two statements, one of which is dependent on the other is called a subordinating conjunction. For example:

We continued to work although we were getting late.

In this sentence, although we were getting late is a subordinate clause, for it cannot stand on its own. Therefore, although is a subordinating conjunction. Subordinating conjunctions may be classified according to their meaning.

  1. Subordinating conjunction introducing noun clause
    There are some subordinating conjunctions that introduce a particular type of subordinate clause.
    That
    She said that she was confident of her success.
    Are you sure that you have the right address?
    If/whether
    She asked me if I had sufficient woolens for the winter.
    They wanted to know whether I could accept the proposal.
  2. Subordinating conjunctions introducing adverb clauses
    Time: when, whenever, before, after, till, since, as soon as, while, as
    We felt thrilled when our football team won the zonal.
    I will give him your message whenever I see him.
    Father asked me to stay at home till he returned.
    Place: where, wherever
    She found her bag where she had left it in the shop.
    Wherever he goes, he wins respect.
    Cause or reason: because, since, as
    I prefer to live in Bhaktapur because the climate suits me.
    Water supply to his house was disconnected since he had not paid the bill.
    Result or consequence: So .... that, such ..... that
    He spoke so fast that I could not take down any notes.
    There was such a loud noise that I could not have evena wink of sleep.
    Purpose: so that, that, lest
    We eat that we may live.
    He is wearing a woolen coat lest he should catch a cold.
    Condition: if, unless
    You will be given a permanent job if your work is satisfactory.
    You will not be allowed to enter unless you have an invitation card.
    Concession or contrast: though, although, although ..... yet, even if, even though
    She is humble though she is rich.
    Although he lost heavily yet he did not lose heart.
    Comparision: as .... as, then
    He is as clever as his brother.
    Anu is clever than his sister.
    Manner: as, as if
    They acted as they had been advised.
    He behaved as if he were angry.

Conjunctions used in pairs

Some conjunctions convey their full sense only when they are used in pairs.

Either .... or

Either you should return the book or pay its price.

Neither .... nor

I am neither a fool nor a rogue.

Although (though) .... yet

Although she belongs to a rich family yet she is miserly.

Both .... and

She is both intelligent and hardworking.

Such ...... as

Such land as is described here does not exist anywhere.

So .... as, as ..... as

He is not so brave as you think.

He is as brave as a lion.

As .... so

As you sow, so shall you reap.

So .... that

The speech was so moving that all eyes became wet.

Scarcely ( hardly ) ... when

Scarcely (hardly) had we stepped out when we got drenched.

Not only .... but also

The room was not only cold but damp also.

No sooner .... than

No sooner did I begin my homework than the telephone bell rang.

Things to remember
  • conjunction is a word used to join words, groups of words or sentences.
  • A conjunction used to join two independent statements or two statements of equal rank or importance is called a coordinating conjunction. 
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.

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