Adverbs

Subject: English

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Overview

An adverb is a word that adds something to the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. In this note, we have discussed adverb and formation of adverbs, comparison of adverbs, a position of adverbs.
Adverbs

An adverb is a word that adds something to the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. e.g:

The traveller walked briskly.

Today I faced a very difficult situation.

Adverbs can be of six kinds:

Adverb of manner ( telling how an action is performed )

walked fast; worked quietly

Adverb of place ( telling where an action is performed)

sat here; went downstairs

Adverb of time ( telling when an action is performed)

came early; played today

Adverbs of frequency ( telling how often an action is performed )

visited twice; came usually

Adverb of degree/quantity ( answering the question: how much? or in what degree?)

Know completely; totally full

Interrogative adverbs (used to ask )

When did the train arrive?

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Formation of adverbs

  1. Most adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding -ly. e.g. quick-quickly; loud-loudly; slow-slowly; lazy-lazily; beautiful-beautifully
  2. Some adverbs have exactly the same from as adjective:
    Adjective Adverb
    a late lunch I worked late at the office.
    a fast driver The child ran fast.
  3. Sometimes when we form an adverb by adding -ly to an adjective, we get an adverb with quite a different meaning. So we get two adverbs with two different meanings: e.g.She works hard.
    She hardly works.

Comparison of adverbs

  1. Adverbs of one syllable from their comparative by adding -er and their superlative by adding -est to the positive:
    Positive comparative Superlative
    fast faster fastest
    short shorter shortest
  2. Adverbs ending in -lyform their comparatives by adding more and their superlative by adding most:
    Positive comparative Superlative
    bravely more braverly most bravely
    gently more gently most gently
  3. Some adverbs form the degrees of comparison in an irregular way:
    late later last
    much more most
    well better best

Position of adverbs

  1. Adverbs of manner, place and time are placed after the verb if the verb is intransitive and after the verb, if the verb is intransitive and after the object, if the verb is transitive: The thief run fast;It rained heavily.
  2. For emphasis adverbs of time may also be placed at the beginning of the sentence: Yesterday we went to the museum.
  3. (a) Adverbs of frequency ( always, sometimes, often, etc.
    (b) adverbs of degree ( almost, nearly, quite, etc. ), and
    (c) Sometimes adverbs of manner are placed after the verb if the verb is is/are/am/was/were.
    For eg : She is often absent from the school.
  4. When an adverb modifies an adjective or another adverb, it is placed before the adjective or the adverb.
  5. But the adverb enough is always placed after the word it modifies.
  6. The word only should be placed immediately before the word it modifies.
  7. When there are two or more adverbs after a verb (and its object), the normal order is an adverb of manner, adverb of place, adverb of time: She sang sweetly in the concert last evening.

Correct use of some adverbs

  1. Fairly, rather
    Both fairly and rather mean moderately. Fairly is used with favourable adjectives and adverbs ( clever, wise, intelligent ) etc.; rather is used with the unfavourable ones (foolish, ugly, etc.):
    This child is fairly clever for his age.
    She did fairly well in the interview.
    This shirt is rather expensive.
  2. Very, much
    (a)
    We use very with adjectives or adverbs in the positive degree, much with the comparative degree:
    She is a very intelligent girl.
    Today she is looking much better than usual.
    (b)Very is used with present participles, much with past participles.
    She is very charming.
    The girl was much loved by her parents.
  3. Too
    (a)
    The word too suggests an excess of some kind, more than what is desirable, natural, or proper. It should not be used instead of very or much:
    Do not say: It is too hot today. Say: It is very hot today.
    (b)Too generally has a negative sense and is then followed by an infinitive:
    I am too tired to walk further. ( I am so tired that I cannot walk further. )
  4. Enough
    Enough
    means sufficient. It is always used in a positive sense. It is placed after the adjective or adverb but before a noun:
    She is old enough to go alone.
    There is enough food for both of us.
  5. Quite
    With adjectives that do not have a comparative and superlative degree, quite means completely entirely, fully. It does not mean very:
    She is quite right. ( She is fully right. )
    It is quite impossible. ( absolutely impossible )

Things to remember
  • An adverb is a word that adds something to the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. 
  • Sometimes when we form an adverb by adding -ly to an adjective, we get an adverb with quite a different meaning. 
  • Adverbs of manner, place and time are placed after the verb if the verb is intransitive and after the verb.
  • Enough means sufficient. It is always used in a positive sense. It is placed after the adjective or adverb but before a noun.
  • With adjectives that do not have a comparative and superlative degree, quite means completely entirely, fully. 

 

 

  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.

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