Operating System

Subject: Computer

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Overview

An OS is a collection of system program that together controls the operations of the computer system. This note contains a brief description of the Operating System.
Operating System

The computer system is a collection of different hardware components. So we need software that could perform the basic tasks such as recognizing input from the input devices, sending output to the output devices, keeping tracks of files and directories on the disk and control computer peripheral devices like mouse, printer, scanners etc. An OS is a collection of system program that controls the operations of the computer system. It activates and recognizes the hardware devices and provides the operating environment for other application software. It acts as the intermediary between a user and the computer hardware. It has major two objectives, first is to activate the hardware devices and other is to provide an interactive interface to the user and interpret commands so that it can communicate with the hardware. Example UNIX, MS-DOS, MS-Windows, Linux etc.

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Functions of Operating System

  • File and folder management
  • Device management
  • Memory management
  • Security management
  • Help to run application software for user
  • Process and management

Types of Operating System

Operating system are categorized into different types on the basis of mode of use and user.

Based on mode of user, operating system are classified into two types:

  • Single user operating system: This is the type of computer system which is mostly used in desktop and laptop. It generally provides a simple computer system, which facilitates the running of a variety of software packages as well as it allows users to develop and execute programs of their own.
  • Multi-user operating system: The multi-user operating system allows concurrent access by multiple users of a computer. It allows many different users to take advantage of the computer resources simultaneously. It is often used in business and offices where different users need to access the same resources, but these resources cannot be installed on every system.

We can classify the operating system on the basis user interface like command or character user interface operating system and graphical user interface operating system.

1. Command or Character-based User Interface (CUI)

CUI is a traditional user interface. It provides the interactive terminal where a user could enter the command to interpret. It was the only common place to communicate between a program and its user. Now a day also, we are using this command based interface.

2. Graphical User Interface (GUI)

With the advancement of technology, the computer system has become quicker and cheaper. Operating environment has also changed. This lead the development of graphical user interface where users can interact with the computer using picture and graphs, rather than character and commands. It displays the icon, buttons, dialog box etc. Popular GUI is Microsoft Windows.

Things to remember
  • The computer system is a collection of different hardware components.
  • An OS is a collection of system program that together controls the operations of a computer system. Example: UNIX, MS-DOS, MS-Windows, Linux etc.
  • in broad approach, we can classify the operating system on the basis user interface like command or character user interface operating system and graphical user interface operating system.
  • CUI provides the interactive terminal where a user could enter the command to interpret.
  • GUI consists of different components such as text box, icon, desktop, pointing devices etc.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
Videos for Operating System
Computer Basics: Understanding Operating Systems
How to Distinguish Between a Character-Based Interface & a Graphical User In... : Digital Dexterity
Introduction to Operating Systems
Operating Systems 1 - Introduction
Questions and Answers

An operating system is an organized set of software program to manage the overall operation of the computer.
The three functions of an operating system are:

  1. To assist to execute application software.
  2. To control and coordinate hardware parts.
  3. To let the user run an application program.

Basically, operating system is classified into two types:

  1. Single - user operating system
  2. Multi - user operating system
single-user operating system multi-user operating system
1. It allows a single user to perform just one task at a time. 1. It allows a multiple users to use programs simultaneously.
2. It does not support networking environment. 2. It supports networking environment.
3. E.g. MS-DOS etc. 3. E.g. Unix, Linux, etc.

CUI operating system uses the character (text) to communicate whereas GUI operating system presents information in a graphical form to communicate.

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