Fundamental Knowledge of Computer Programming

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Overview

Computers are the machines that can perform tasks or calculations according to set of instructions or programs. This note provides an information about computer programming languages.
Fundamental Knowledge of Computer Programming

Computers are the machines that can perform tasks or calculations according to the set of instructions or programs. Computers are very fast due to which thousands of tasks can be performed within a short period of time. Hence, computers are the machine, they have no brain so they work according to the set of instructions set inside it.

We know that a computer is an electronic device works on ON and OFF (1 AND 0), the technique to read and write data. We use several languages to communicate with others, just like it, we use several computers languages to communicate with other computers e.g. BASIC, COBOL, PASCAL, FORTRAN etc. The computer understands only computer language written in binary. Other languages have to be converted to machine level for a computer to understand. Programming languages can be used to create programs to control the behavior of a machine or to express algorithms. Different types of programming languages are as follows:

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  • Machine level language
  • Assembly level language
  • High-level language

Machine Code (Machine Languages)

Computer dependent language written in binary is called Machine code or Machine language. Machine code requires a high-level programming skill along with sound knowledge of computer architecture and functions. Instructions written in binary are immediately executable without the help of any language translators because computer understands the machine codes.

Advantages

  • It is written in machine code so no need to translate it into machine language.
  • It has faster execution than other languages.
  • Other translator type subsidiary programs are not required.

Disadvantages

  • It is difficult to understand and develop a program using machine language.
  • It is machine-oriented language.
  • The knowledge of computer internal architectures is essential for program coding.
  • Time-consuming.
  • Debugging is tough and difficult.

Assembly Language

It is a low-level language in which some high-level words are used with machine codes. These words are called mnemonics. Some mnemonics are given below:

  • ADD for Addition
  • SUB for Subtraction

Assembly language requires ASSEMBLER to translate assembly language code into computer understandable code (Machine code). So, it is not immediately executable. It is difficult to develop the program using this immediately executable. It is difficult to develop the program using this language.

Advantages

  • Coding is faster than machine code language because mnemonics are used for program coding.
  • Less time consumed with respect to Machine code languages.
  • Debugging is easy.

Disadvantages

  • Machine oriented language
  • The good knowledge of machine architectures is required.
  • Time consuming
  • The translator is used to translate the program into machine code.
  • Not as fast as machine code language in case of execution.

High-level language

High-level language contains a set of instructions written in simple English. It is a set of symbols, words and rules to instruct machine. The language is oriented towards the problem and procedures. A program written in a high-level language is called source program. A language translator is used to translate into object code (Machine code).

Advantages

  • Simple English is used for program coding.
  • Machine independent
  • Problem and procedure oriented
  • The knowledge of computer architectures is not necessary.
  • It requires less time for program coding.
  • Program can be debugged easily

Disadvantages

  • Since it is written in user's language so it should be converted into machine code.So it requires a translator.
  • The execution of the program is slower than machine code.
  • The conversion time is slower than assembly language because it is entirely written in human language.
Things to remember
  • Programming languages can be used to create programs to control the behavior of a machine or to express algorithms.
  • Computer dependent language written in binary is called Machine code or Machine language.
  • Assembly language requires ASSEMBLER to translate assembly language code into computer understandable code (Machine code).
  • High-level language contains a set of instructions written in simple English. 
  • Computers are the machines that can perform tasks or calculations according to a set of instructions or programs.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
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Questions and Answers

A programming language is an artificial language that is understood by the computer, which is used to write a set of instructions.
Types of programming language are:

  1. Low-level language
  2. High-level language

Low-level language is machine dependent language which cannot be used on another computer when it is written for one computer.
Low-level language is of two types.

  1. Machine level language (MLL)
  2. Assembly language (AL)

Machine level language is first generation language, which uses binary codes i.e. 0 & 1. It is computers native language so the translator is not required.

This is second-generation computer programming language alphanumeric codes instead of 0 & 1. The program of assembly language is needed to be translated by an assembler.

Advantages of assembly language are:

  1. It is easier than machine level language.
  2. It uses mnemonic code so the program becomes easier.


Disadvantages of assembly language are:

  1. Programs are not user-friendly.
  2. Difficult to understand than high-level language

The high-level language is machine independent problem-oriented common language that uses English similar instructions and Mathematical notations for writing instructions.

The common features of high-level language are:

  1. User-friendly, since it uses English similar works
  2. It is problem oriented.
  3. It follows set of rules called syntax.
  4. It is translated to MLL by using language processor.
Four common high-level programming languages are:
  1. Quick BASIC (QBASIC)
  2. Visual BASIC (VB)
  3. C, C++
  4. Java etc.
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