Vegetable Farming

Subject: Occupation, Business & Technology Education

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Overview

Many studies have been done on general about different aspects of vegetable and requirements of vegetable farming. There are many benefits of vegetables and in this lesson, we discussed more tools and techniques about the vegetable farming.
Vegetable Farming

Introduction

Many studies have been made on the different aspects of vegetable, their benefits and farming. In this lesson more techniques and tools about vegetable farmings are studied.

Seasonal and off-season vegetables

Seasonal Vegetables

cauliflower
Source: www.theguardian.com
Fig: Cauliflower

Different vegetable grows in a different environment. Some vegetables need warm temperature and some of them need cold temperature. The vegetables that can not adjust to all kind of temperature is the seasonal vegetable. For example, cauliflower only grows in a winter season. The seasonal vegetables is grown in the natural cycle of seasons when they are most suitable.

Off-season Vegetables

off seasonal vegetables
Source: evhanimiyiz.blogspot.com
Fig: Off seasonal vegetables

The vegetable which can be grown in any season using technology is an off-season vegetable. For example, onion can be grown anytime. The main advantage of off-season vegetables is to ensure food security during the scarce period to promote seasonal employment and to ensure high price for farmers.

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Organic Manure and Chemical Fertilizer

That kind of fertilizer which are made from naturally occurring bi-products of plant and animal is known as the organic substance. It consists of plant nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and many other kinds of nutrients. Organic fertilizer increases the water-holding capacity of the soil. This kind of fertilizer is easy to prepare and very economic.

fertilizer
Source: www.kasetpost.com
Fig: Fertilizer

Whereas the chemical fertilizer is synthetically prepared to provide the vital nutrients necessary for the plant's growth. This kind of fertilizer consists of high amount of phosphorus and potassium which are prepared in big industries. Some of its examples are complex fertilizer, super phosphorus, urea etc. But these fertilizers damage natural soil and kill the micro-organism of the soil which is not good for the plants from the environmental perspective.

Preparation of Compost

The procedure which has to be followed to prepare compost are listed and explained below:

Suitable place: For composting well-drained area is very much important which should be located in the back yard or close to cattle shed for avoiding the foul smell.

Collection of composting materials: Many kinds of organic materials are used for composting. Organic materials consist of dead plants, rotten vegetables, kitchen waste, animals litter, urine, sheet, etc. They might be available naturally.

Tools and equipment required: Tools and equipment are required depending on which method we are going to use. Some of the examples of these tools are compost bin or container, shovel, fork, etc

Selecting appropriate method: There are three types of composting method: pit method, piling method or bin method. Former two are good for large quantity production and the third is good for the small quantity.

Filling process: We should take care of the following aspects while filling up the materials.

  • Using a shovel, turn soil into the selected area. Cover the bottom of the surface with a 5cm or 6cm layer of coarse and dry shrubs. On this bed place a layer of dead leaves or earth. This will allow air circulation and improve drainage.
  • In the second layer, there should be two parts of the carbon-rich matter and one part of nitrogen rich matter.
  • Next, spread some wood ash between the layers.
  • At last, we should add more organic materials, rotten vegetables, kitchen waste into the bin for about two to three weeks.

Turning the compost and other cares: Here we need to see how moist the compost is. For timely decomposition, we have to turn the compost at least two times. Depending on the temperature, compost will be ready in few months. Watering must also be done in order to get better results.

Precaution

  • Avoid adding plant matter from a diseased plant. Some diseases can survive in compost and may become unsafe for human beings.
  • Meat or animal waste should not be used as compost as they attract pests.
  • Compost should not be exposed to the sun as the nutrients may be lost partially.

Use of compost: Compost is used in organic farming. They are added to the field as per requirement. Apply the compost before the tillage operation. In enhances soil fertility.

Significance of Drip Irrigation

Irrigation provides water to plant for survival and growth. Drip irrigation system is used for providing water to plant. Some of the significance of drip irrigation system are given below:

  • The system has high economic use of water.
  • Labour will not be required to individually water plants. It does not wash fertilizer and pesticide used.
  • This technology helps to improve the environment quality.

Kitchen Gardening

Kitchen Gardening
Source: gardenious.com
Fig: Kitchen Gardening

Types of Seasonal Vegetables

Considering the environment and season, there are different types of vegetables which can be divided into two groups:

Winter Season: In this season, vegetables requires cold, less humid condition and can sustain frost. Carrot, radish, cauliflower, garlic, etc are examples of this season vegetables.

Summer Season: In this season, vegetables requires warm, humid condition and can not sustain frost. Cucumber, pumpkin, sweet potato, lady's finger, etc are the examples of this season vegetables.

Vegetable Growing and Caring

Giving care to the vegetables are common for most of the plants. Allow the following steps for caring and growing the vegetables.

  • First select an appropriate place to plant the vegetable which is safe and has sufficient sunlight.
  • Get good seeds, plants and materials.
  • Dig soils, break clods, remove weeds, level the land, apply compost and make seed beds for sowing.
  • Dig a hole and gently put a seed or plant into the hole and fill again firmly with soil.
  • Be careful that you won't put much water on soil.
  • Manage and control pests. Learn methods for controlling the insects.

Harvesting, Production, and Storage:

rice harvesting
Source:livingintaiwan.wordpress.com
Fig: Rice harvesting

We should harvest in the proper time because it is the time of getting the reward of your labour. Any kind of delay on harvest may cause great loss of production. Vegetables must be stored under proper condition. Temperature and humidity are important factors for the proper condition of vegetables. Some specific vegetables have their ideal set of conditions at which they can be stored for the maximum length of time. 30oF - 36oF is the ideal temperature for the vegetation. It should be stored in cold storage.

Identification of Disease and Pests

Disease: Healthy vegetables are good to eat but growing healthy vegetables are difficult. A lot of care is needed for growing healthy vegetables. Vegetables may be harmed by the diseases. The basic cause of plant diseases is either due to fungi, bacteria, viruses or due to adverse physical environment.

Insects: Insects are another cause of the destruction of plants. Some of them are sucking types of insects like bugs. They suck different parts of plants and destroys the plants. Others are chewing type of insects pests like caterpillars. They eat leaves, fruits, and stem of plants.

Plant Protection Techniques

Nowadays, farmers use pesticides to kill the germ on plants, which kills the germs but may remain on soil for a long period of time and affect the human health. So firstly we have to identify insects and diseases. Their control measures require more than one techniques. The majority of farmers are not conscious about vegetable safety. The following tools can be utilized to control pest:

  • Appropriate and clean cultivation practice.
  • Use the biopesticides to control pests.
  • Use other biological predators like ladybird, beetle etc to control pests.
  • Raise awareness of the farmers in pest management.

Types of Organic Manures

compost
Source: strgid.ru
Fig: compost

Compost: After decomposition of organic matter compost is obtained. It is usually of plants origin but often includes some animal dung.

Slurry: Slurry is a kind slug usually of cow or buffalo dung obtained after the use in biogas plants. It adds moisture to the soil as it carries a lot of nutrients.

Sewage: Sewage is water-carried waste that is removed from the home as waste. But one must be sure that it is free from chemical before pouring to the field.

Worm-composting:Worm composting is a method of growing and using earthworms for increasing soil fertility. These worms help decompose the organic matters giving a very good quality of fertilizer known as vermin-composting.

Peat:Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands or bogs. It is good for flower growing.

Green manure:Green manure is a term used to describe a specific plant or crop varieties that are grown and turned into the soil to improve its overall quality. They are grown in the field for about 40 days and turned under the soil as manure through cultivation.

Things to remember
  • Different vegetable grows in the different environment.
  • A vegetable that can adjust to all kind of  temperature is the seasonal vegetable.
  • A vegetable which is grown in any season using technology is an off-season vegetable.
  • Compost should not be exposed to the sun as the nutrients may be lost partially.
  • Use biopesticide to control pests.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
Videos for Vegetable Farming
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Questions and Answers

Seasonal vegetables are those vegetables that can not adjust all kind of temperatures. The seasonal vegetables are grown in the natural cycle of seasons when they are most suitable. For example, cauliflower only grows in winter season.

The off seasonal vegetables are those vegetables which can be grown in any season using technology. The main advantage of off-season vegetables is that it ensures food scarcity. For example, tomato can be grown anytime using a tunnel or greenhouse technology or genetically modified seed.

Manure Fertilizer
Manure are made from naturally occurring by-products from plants and animals known as an organic substance. Fertilizers are synthetically prepared to provide the vital nutrients necessary for the plant's growth.
It contains natural nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) and other several nutrients. They contain a high percentage of NPK which is prepared with complicated chemical processes.
It does not harm microscopic organism in the soil. It damages the natural structure of the soil.

There are different types of an irrigation system. Drip irrigation is one of the most popular irrigation systems in vegetable farming. Some of the importance of drip irrigation in vegetable farming are as follows:

  • A small volume of water can be sufficient to a lot of vegetable plants. It is water efficient technology.
  • The system has high economic use of water.
  • Labour will not be required to water the plants individually.
  • It does not wash fertilizer and pesticide used.
  • This technology helps in the betterment of the environment quality.

The process to grow seasonal vegetables are as follows:

  1. Firstly, select an appropriate place to plant the vegetables which are safe and have enough sunlight.
  2. Get good seeds, plants, and materials.
  3. Dig soils, break clods, remove weeds, level the land, apply compost and make seed beds for sowing.
  4. Dig a hole and gently put a seed or plant into the hole and fill again firmly with soil.
  5. Be careful that you won't put water too much in soil.
  6. Manage and control pests. Mulch and cultivate to control pests and weeds because they compete with vegetables for water, nutrients and light.

Vegetables must be stored under proper conditions. It should be stored in cold storage. Temperature and humidity are important factors for the proper condition of vegetables. Some specific vegetables have their ideal set of conditions at which they can be stored most successfully for the maximum length of time. 30oF - 36oF is the ideal temperature for the vegetation.

We can control pest by:

  1. Appropriate and clean cultivation practice.
  2. Using varieties of plants that are resistant to the pest.
  3. Using bio-pesticide to control pests.
  4. Using other biological predators like ladybird, beetle to control pests.
  5. Raising awareness of the farmers in pest management

There are different types of organic manure. Some of them are described below:

  1. Compost: After decomposition of an organic matter, compost is obtained. It is usually of plants origin but often includes some animal dung.
  2. Slurry: Slurry is a kind of slug usually of a cow or buffalo dung obtained after the use in biogas plants. It moistens the soils as it carries a lot of nutrients.
  3. Sewage: Sewage is water-carried waste that is removed from the home as waste. But one must be sure that it is free from chemical before pouring to the field.
  4. Worm-composting: Worm composting is a method for recycling food waste into a rich, dark, earth-smelling soil conditioner. These worms help to decompose the organic matters giving a very good quality of fertilizer known as vermin-composting.
  5. Peat: Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands or bogs. It is good for flower growing.
  6. Green manure: Green manure is a term used to describe a specific plant or crop variety that is grown and turned into the soil to improve its overall quality. They are grown in the field for about 40 days and turned under the soils as manure through cultivation.

Worm composting is a method for recycling food waste into a rich, dark, earth-smelling soil conditioner and a valuable soil amendment called vermin compost or worm compost. Worms eat food scraps, which become compost as they pass through the worm's body. The great advantage of worm composting is that this can be done indoors and outdoors.

Green manures are a great way to add organic nutrients to your soil. A green manure crop can be cut and be plowed into the soil or simply left on the ground for an extended period prior to tilling garden areas. They are grown in the field for about 40 days and turned under the soils as manure through cultivation.

We can prepare compost by the following method:

1. Suitable place: For composting, well-drained area is very much important which should be near the back yard or close to cattle shed for avoiding of foul smell.

2. Collecting of composting materials: Many kinds of organic materials are used to make compost. Organic materials consist of dead plants, rotten vegetables, kitchen waste, animals litter, urine, etc. They might be available naturally.

3. Tools and equipment required: Tools and equipments are required depending on which method we are going to use. Some of the examples are compost bin or container, shovel, fork, etc

4. Selecting appropriate method: There are three types of composting method. They are pit method, piling method and bin method. Former two are good for large quantity production and the third is good for a small quantity.

5. Filling process: We should take care of the following aspects while filling up the materials.

  • Using a shovel, turn soil into the selected area. Cover the bottom of the surface with a 5cm or 6cm layer of coarse and dry shrubs. This will help to allow air circulation and improve drainage.
  • In the second layer, there should be two parts of the carbon-rich matter and nitrogen rich matter.
  • Next spread some wood ash between the layer.
  • At last, we should add more organic materials, rotten vegetables, kitchen waste into the bin for about two to three weeks.

6. Turning the compost and other cares: Here we need to see how moist the compost is. Timely decomposition is very important for the betterment of the compost. Decomposition should be turned into compost at least two-time depending on the temperature. Watering must be done in order to get better results.

Quiz

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