Modern Technology

Subject: Occupation, Business & Technology Education

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Overview

Modern technologies are highly efficient, power-operated as well as complicated. The modern technologies require special knowledge and skills for their operation. This note has information about modern technologies.
Modern Technology

Household Electrical appliances

Generally, modern technologies are highly efficient, power-operated as well as complicated. The modern technologies require special knowledge and skills for their operation. Some of the household electrical appliances are:

Switch

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Source: www.tradeindia.com
Fig: Switch


A switch is a device that helps to make, break or change the connections in an electrical circuit. It helps to control the electricity as well as to break the electrical circuit in any of the electrical appliances.

Joint box
An electrical joint box is an electrical wire that can be safely joined together for electrical connections. It is used to hide connections for safety purposes. So, it is a very important part in electrical wiring system in a building.

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Plug and socket

Plug and socket
Source: rotter.net
Fig: Plug and socket


Plug and sockets are the devices that help to connect an electrical device to an electricity supply. The plug is inserted into the socket to get electricity for the electrical appliances. Electrical plugs and sockets differ in voltage, power, type, shape, size and current rating of the connectors.

Bulb

Bulb
Source: igelu.org
Fig: Bulb


The bulb is the device that converts electrical energy into light energy. It is a device that produces light from electricity. The traditional types of bulb consume much power. But, the modern filament bulbs such as CFL and LED bulbs are highly efficient and much durable.

Wire
A wire is a thin thread of metal that is made up of copper. It works as the means to flow power and is used to transfer electricity from one point to another.

Volt-guard
Volt-guard is a device that helps to protect the delicate electronic appliances from being damaged due to voltage spikes, voltage surges, voltage variations etc.

MCB
The full form of MCB is Miniature Circuit Breaker. It helps to protect against any kind of damage that is caused due to the overload or short circuit. It is used instead of a fuse as it is more reliable than a fuse. It automatically switches off the electrical circuit during various unusual conditions of a network, both in overload situations as well as in weak situations.

Household Appliances

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Source:www.freeknock.com
Fig: Household Electrical Appliances

Household appliances such as iron, rice cooker, grinder, vacuum cleaner, television, refrigerator, washing machine, oven, computer etc. have made our life very easy and luxurious. The following are some of the home appliances:

Television
Television is one of the sources of information. It is an electronic device that broadcast moving image through radio-waves to receivers. It consists of a display screen and speakers. It helps to promote national integrity, provides entertainment, information, and pleasure.

Oven
It is a cooking equipment with a door. It is used to bake, heat, grill, and dry food. It can also be used for industrial purposes and is designed in larger sizes. Ovens are of different types such as earthen oven, clay oven, ceramic oven, micro-oven etc.

Vacuum Cleaner
A vacuum cleaner is a device that works on the principle of air pumping system. It is used for creating a partial vacuum to engulf dust and dirt from floors, walls, ceilings, carpets etc. The dust and dirt get collected inside a bag within it which can be disposed of later. It is used in homes, offices as well as in industries.

Grinder
It is a type of tool that is used to crush spices and other food items that run through batteries or electricity. A plastic jug with the appropriate rotating blade is mounted over the motor and switched on to start crushing. It is used for dry forms of turmeric, black pepper, coffee beans, coriander and many other food items.

Mixer
A mixer is also known as the blender or shaking machine. It is used to blend soft types of foods and making shakes of milk, baby food, fruit etc. Electricity is used to run it.

Computer as a Communication Equipment

A computer is an electronic device that processes data and information. It is one of the sources of getting and transforming the information from any place. So, the computer has served as a better method of communication.

Electronic Mail (Email)
Email is one of the methods of transferring information and messages from one person or organization to another. The internet or various other computer networks help to operate the email systems. Email servers accept, forward, deliver, and store messages.

Internet
The internet is a global computer networking that provides a variety of information and communication facilities. It has made our life easier by providing news and information of one corner of the world to another. It can be used for various purposes such as research, getting news and information, entertainment, communication, exploring the world as well as shootings and homework.

Online Chat
The term ‘online’ means web based applications and ‘chat’ means an informal type of conversation. The communication on the internet through the direct transformation of text or short messages is termed as online chat. The messages are short so that the other participants can reply to it as quickly as possible. Online chat may be done with one sender to one receiver or one sender to many receivers. So, it helps to communicate in real time.

Video Chat
Simply, video chat is an improved version of online chat. Online chat interacts users at different locations only through text messages but the video chat interacts the users directly through audio and video. It can be conducted through mobile phones, computers and laptops. Video chat is very much useful and helpful for both individuals and business organizations. Families can chat to any member of the family who is far from them. So, it helps to bind the family emotions. On the other hand, video conferencing can also be held with the help of video chat. Such video-conferencing is very helpful for the business organizations.

Different Types of Energy Technologies

The ability to do work is known as energy. Energy is of different forms such as kinetic, potential, mechanical, heat, light etc. It is required for carrying out various activities of human beings such as cooking, lighting, heating, operating industries etc. On the basis of sources, there are two types of energy. They are:

Source: www.haikudeck.com
Fig: Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy

Renewable energy sources
The energy that can be obtained from natural resources such as sunlight, water, wind, tides, etc. and that can also be replenished are known as renewable energy sources. They get reformed after a certain period of time. They also don’t get finished after their use.

Non-renewable energy sources
The energy sources that are obtained from fossil fuels (such as coal, oil, natural gas, etc.) are known as non-renewable energy sources. They are also known as the conventional sources of energy.

Alternative energy

Alternative energy is the sustainable options to the non-renewable energy sources. Since non-renewable energy sources do not replenish at a short period of time, so an alternative method should be found out. The sources like biomass, fossil fuels etc. are not sustainable and environment-friendly. The following are some of the alternative sources of energy:

Biogas
Biomass energy is the energy obtained from the plant or animal sources. Biogas is a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide (CO2) which can be turned into fuel. It is produced by the bacterial decomposition of organic matters. It is used as a cooking gas in agricultural communities.

Briquette
A briquette is a compressed block of coal and other combustible biomass material such as charcoal, wood chips, or paper used for fuel. It is used by the household sector, industrial sector as well as commercial sector.

Windmill
Windmill is a device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by the means of vanes called sails or blades. It uses the wind energy for generating electricity. It is used to produce power, pump water etc. Nepal is a mountainous country that has a high potential for wind energy. So, in many places of Nepal such as Pyuthan, Nuwakot, Ramechhap, Mustang etc., wind mill turbines are installed.

Things to remember
  • Modern technologies are highly efficient, power-operated as well as complicated.
  • The modern technologies require special knowledge and skills for their operation.
  • A switch is a device that helps to make, break or change the connections in an electrical circuit. 
  • Household appliances such as iron, rice cooker, grinder, vacuum cleaner, television, refrigerator, washing machine, oven, computer etc. have made our life very easy and luxurious.
  • A computer is an electronic device that processes data and information. It is one of the sources of getting and transferring the information from one place to another.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
Videos for Modern Technology
How do different types of Renewable Energy work?
How Do Microwave Ovens Work?
How Email is Sent and Received on The Internet
MCB Working principle
Renewable and NonRenewable Resources
Uses of the INTERNET
Questions and Answers

A switch is a device that helps to make, break or change the connections in an electrical circuit. It helps to control the electricity as well as to break the electrical circuit in any of the electrical appliances.

An electrical joint box is an electrical wire that can be safely joined together for electrical connections. It is used to hide connections for safety purposes.

A bulb is a device that converts electrical energy into light energy. It is a device that produces light from electricity.

A wire is a thin thread of metal that is made up of copper. It works as the means to flow power and is used to transfer electricity from one point to another.

A volt-guard is a device that helps to protect the delicate electronic appliances from being damaged due to voltage spikes, voltage surges, voltage variations etc.

A television is one of the sources of information. It is an electronic device that broadcast moving images through radio-waves to receivers.

A vacuum cleaner is a device that works on the principle of air pumping system. It is used for creating a partial vacuum to engulf dust and dirt from floors, walls, ceilings, carpets etc.

A grinder is a type of tool that is used to crush spices and other food items. It runs through batteries or electricity.

A computer is an electronic device that processes data and information. It is one of the sources of getting and transferring the information from one place to another.

An email is one of the methods of transferring information and messages from one person or organization to another. The internet or various other computer networks help to operate the email systems.

The Internet is a global computer networking that provides a variety of information and communication facilities.

The energy that can be obtained from natural resources such as sunlight, water, wind, tides, etc. and that can also be replenished are known as renewable energy sources.

The energy sources that are obtained from fossil fuels (such as coal, oil, natural gas, etc.) are known as non-renewable energy sources.

Biomass energy is the energy obtained from the plant or animal sources.

Biogas is a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide (CO2) which can be turned into a fuel. It is produced by the bacterial decomposition of organic matters.

A briquette is a compressed block of coal and other combustible biomass material such as charcoal, wood chips, or paper used for fuel.

A windmill is a device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by the means of vanes called sails or blades.

The following are some of the household electrical appliances:

Switch

A switch is a device that helps to make, break or change the connections in an electrical circuit. It helps to control the electricity as well as to break the electrical circuit in any of the electrical appliances.

Joint box
An electrical joint box is an electrical wire that can be safely joined together for electrical connections. It is used to hide connections for safety purposes. So, it is a very important part in electrical wiring system in a building.

Plug and socket
Plug and sockets are the devices that help to connect an electrical device to an electricity supply. The plug is inserted into the socket to get electricity for the electrical appliances. Electrical plugs and sockets differ in voltage, power, type, shape, size and current rating of the connectors.

Bulb

The bulb is the device that converts electrical energy into light energy. It is a device that produces light from electricity. The traditional types of bulb consume much power. But, the modern filament bulbs such as CFL and LED bulbs are highly efficient and much durable.

Wire
A wire is a thin thread of metal that is made up of copper. It works as the means to flow power and is used to transfer electricity from one point to another.

Volt-guard
Volt-guard is a device that helps to protect the delicate electronic appliances from being damaged due to voltage spikes, voltage surges, voltage variations etc.

MCB
The full form of MCB is Miniature Circuit Breaker. It helps to protect against any kind of damage that is caused due to the overload or short circuit. It is used instead of a fuse as it is more reliable than a fuse. It automatically switches off the electrical circuit during various unusual conditions of a network, both in overload situations as well as in weak situations.

Biogas is used as a cooking gas in agricultural communities.

Briquette is used by the household sector, industries sector as well as commercial sector for fuel.

Windmill is used to produce power, pump water etc.

The internet is a global computer networking that provides a variety of information and communication facilities. It has made our life easier by providing news and information of one corner of the world to another. It can be used for various purposes such as research, getting news and information, entertainment, communication, exploring the world as well as shootings and homework.

The following are the five electrical appliances used for household purposes:

  1. Television
    Television is one of the sources of information. It is an electronic device that broadcast moving image through radio-waves to receivers. It consists of a display screen and speakers. It helps to promote national integrity, provides entertainment, information, and pleasure.
  2. Oven
    It is cooking equipment with a door. It is used to bake, heat, grill, and dry food. It can also be used for industrial purposes and is also designed in larger sizes . Ovens are of different types such as earthen oven, clay oven, ceramic oven, micro-oven etc.
  3. Vacuum Cleaner
    A vacuum cleaner is a device that works on the principle of air pumping system. It is used for creating a partial vacuum to engulf dust and dirt from floors, walls, ceilings, carpets etc. The dust and dirt get collected inside a bag within it which can be disposed of later. It is used in homes, offices as well as in industries.
  4. Grinder
    It is a type of tool that is used to crush spices and other food items. It runs on batteries or electricity. A plastic jug with the appropriate rotate blade is mounted over the motor and switched on to start crushing. It is used for dry forms of turmeric, black pepper, coffee beans, coriander and many other food items.
  5. Mixer
    A mixer is also known as the blender or shaking machine. It is used to blend soft types of foods and making shakes of milk, baby food, fruit etc. It runs on the electricity.
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