Use of energy and Pollution

Subject: Physics

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Pollution is the addition of something in the ecosystem, which has a detrimental effect on the environment. This note provides us an information on use of energy and pollution.
Use of energy and Pollution

Global Energy Consumption Pattern and Demands

The amount of energy consumed by a country depends on the living standards of its citizens and the degree of its industrialization. The average energy required for a man to maintain his daily activities require about 20 k cal per day. At present, the global energy consumption per capita per day is about 2000 times the 20 K calorie he needs for maintaining life. The figure shows the global energy consumption from 1900 to 1990.

At present, about 40% of demand for energy in the world is obtained from oils. Similarly, about 20% of the total energy consumption provided by coal, about 20% by natural gas, wool 10%, nuclear resources 7% and hydroelectric power 3%. Remaining required energy is fulfilled by the resources like solar energy, tidal energy, wind energy etc.

Energy Use in Nepal

In Nepal, existing energy sources are classified into two major groups:

  1. Conventional Energy Sources
  2. Alternative Energy Sources

Nepal is not an industrially developed country. So that biomass energy as the burning of wood, agricultural waste products, and animal waste are the important resources of energy. About 94% of the total energy consumption of the country is met from biomass, out of which 80% is met by burning wool and 8.5% from animal waste.

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Pollution

Pollution is the addition of something in the ecosystem, which has a detrimental effect on the environment. Odum (1971) defined pollutants as an undesirable change in the physical-chemical and biological activities. Air containing dust, smoke and CO2 makes air polluted. Likewise, the high concentration of chemical fertilizer such as nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in the soil pollutes the land.

Types of pollution

Air pollution

An undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of air is called pollution. The substances which pollute the air called pollutants.

Sources of air Pollution

  1. The major industrial exhausts which contain carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, an oxide of nitrogen, chlorine, fluorine etc.
  2. Burning solid fuels such as firewood, agricultural wastes, coal etc are the causes of air pollution.
  3. Chloro fluoro Carbon (CFC) and ammonia released by the refrigerators etc.
  4. Different biocides such as pesticides, insecticides, fungicides etc.
  5. Tobacco smoke.
  6. Electric power plants, burning fossils fuels etc.

Control of Air Pollution

  1. Control over the kinds of fuel used in cars, aeroplanes, power stations, etc.
  2. The establishment of more smokeless zones.
  3. Disposal of wastes by dilution processes.
  4. The government should encourage scientific societies and newspapers to create awareness among people about pollution and environment.
  5. The garbage in big cities should be treated with cobalt rays.

Effects of Air pollution

  1. Air pollution causes respiratory tract infection (RTI) and asthma.
  2. It deteriorates the cultural heritage and trees.
  3. It brings various skin and eye allergy.
  4. It is the main causes of global warming
Water pollution

Degradation in the quality of water is called water pollution. Water covers over the 3/4th part of the earth’s surface. It is a very important resource for people and the environment. Water pollution affects drinking water, rivers, lakes and oceans all over the world. In many developing countries, it is usually a leading cause of death, by people drinking from polluted water sources. Drainage and wastage from industries, laboratory, hospitals, and homes are the main factors that cause water pollution.

Causes of water pollution

There are various causes of water pollution. Main causes of water pollution are described below:

  1. A mixture of the drain in water: In urban areas drainage and drinking water pipe are brought through the same route. If drainage pipe gets burst then drinking water pipe gets contaminated with drain water which pollutes the water.
  2. Washing and cleaning near water resources: In rural areas, many people shares common tap where they wash their clothes and bath nearby water resources which pollute water.
  3. Mixing of fertilizers in water: Farmers use different fertilizers on their farm which are carried to river by rainfall. Fertilizers get mixed with the river.
  4. Wastage from different sectors: Wastage produced by hospitals, industries, and houses are thrown in the river. Due to lack of garbage disposal water gets polluted.
  5. Mismanagement of drain: Drains are directly thrown into the water in urban areas. Sometimes people directly throw wastage in water.

Control of Water Pollution

  1. Renovating the existing sewer lines and connecting them to the central sewer line by branch and trunk lines.
  2. All domestic sewage be centrally collected.
  3. Industries may be forced to treat the effluents to a requisite quality standard and to be connected to the main sewer line.
  4. Wastes from other sources like cattle fields and livestock farming should be managed properly.
  5. All municipal and industrial waste water should be centrally collected and managed.

Effects of water pollution

  1. Water pollution causes water-borne disease like diarrhoea, dysentery, and cholera.
  2. It also brings various skin allergies if taken the bath with polluted water.
  3. Acid rain deteriorates cultural heritages.
  4. It has the negative impact on plants.
  5. Aquatic animals cannot survive in polluted water.

Reference

Manu Kumar Khatry, Manoj Kumar Thapa, et al.Principle of Physics. Kathmandu: Ayam publication PVT LTD, 2010.

S.K. Gautam, J.M. Pradhan. A text Book of Physics. Kathmandu: Surya Publication, 2003.

Things to remember

Pollution is the addition of something in the ecosystem, which has a detrimental effect on the environment. 

An undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of air is called pollution. 

At present, about 40% of demand for energy in the world is obtained from oil only.

In many developing countries, it is usually a leading cause of death, by people drinking from polluted water sources.

  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.

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